How to clean outside brick walls
Crack on a painted wall how to clean. How do I seal holes in a concrete wall? Repair cracks in the masonry: clean
Cracks in the walls of the house, both inside and outside, are not uncommon and occur for various reasons, which we will consider below. You will also learn how to repair a crack in a wall, repair a concrete surface, crack in drywall or in a wall plastered with cement. Self-sealing cracks bare brick, the power of any owner who is not afraid of work and has a minimum of home tools.
Repair of cracks in masonry
Masonry damage can occur through:
- Shrinkage of the soil under the base of the foundation;
- High water level;
- Shallow depression of the foundation;
- Heavy load from incorrect calculations;
- Improperly prepared mortar and violations of construction technologies.
The area where cracks appeared indicates the causes of the damage. The appearance of cracks in the wall below means that the bearing loads due to the pressure of the floors are not calculated correctly. If cracks grow on the top of the wall, then most likely the foundation will shrink.
Before covering the cracks masonry, it is necessary to check their condition - cracks will grow or not. This is done by overlaying plaster of paris beacons that overlap along the edges of the crack and hold a strip of paper. There are also special devices with graduated graduation. The crack is monitored for 7-10 days.
Minor repairs of cracks in brick walls up to 0.5 cm wide do this: they cover the damage with liquid cement without adding sand. Process technology:
- The gap is cleared of dirt and wetted by water;
- The crack edges expand to increase the coverage area of the solution. The solution is tightly plugged inside.
- With the same solution, cracks 0.5-1 cm in size can be repaired only by adding cleaned sand.
Large cracks (≥ 10 mm) must be repaired in different ways:
- The destroyed local part of the masonry is dismantled and the brick is repositioned:
- Remove the brick starting from the upper rows, the bricks are put back "in the castle";
- The section of the new masonry is reinforced with suitable metal fittings.
- If it is not possible to disassemble the brick in the damaged area, the cracks in this area can be repaired with a thick layer of cement-sand mortar, as described in paragraph 2 above.
- The crack is also pinched by T-shaped steel crutches, the edges of which are attached to the dowels on the wall. This repair method requires the same crutches to be retracted from the inside.
- Cracks in the masonry can be repaired with construction foam or sealant, after the fabric has hardened, the damage is deepened by 1-2 cm, the cavity is repaired with cement mortar. The sealant is pressed into the slot with a special construction gun;
- Internal crack in the wall brick house it is closed as follows: first the edges of the crack are pulled together with a steel plate (s), the edges of which are fixed with anchors or dowels, then the area is covered with mortar;
- If during the inspection of the building it was found that the wall cracked due to the shrinkage of the foundation, then the base should be reinforced with an external concrete grill around the entire perimeter. The grill is poured into a trench that digs along the entire base to the depth of its foundation.
How to repair cracks in a plastered wall
It seems that a crack on the plaster is not a dangerous and minor problem, it is not just a visual flaw. Not only the decorative coating, but also the masonry suffers. Most often, the plaster cracks on the outer walls, as their surface is affected by changes in humidity and temperature. Through such small cracks, water falls into bricks, and in frost it turns to ice and destroys the wall.
From the inside, such cracks on the plaster are more like cobwebs - they are small and flat and appear all at once due to incorrect proportions of plastering mortar or a thick layer of plaster. That said, the technology is clearly being violated here, and the only way to fix the problem radically - to shut down the old layer and apply a new one.
And how can you repair microcracks that may appear after wallpapering, plastering or painting? First you need to reinforce this damage with a fiberglass mesh, glue a flap made of glass wallpaper or fiberglass, and then plaster this place. Gypsum mortar for these purposes can be external and internal, and the differences are in the composition - the external mix is based on the use of cement, the internal mix uses lime.
How can micro-cracks be repaired when the plaster is damaged? The repair solution can be industrial or homemade, and the repair technology is as follows:
- With a brush, the solution is applied to the place where there is a crack, and the surface is rubbed with a grater or spatula.
- When the old layer of plaster has been sprayed, the brush is moistened with water to achieve the same effect after the repair, and the plastered wall is then moistened with a damp brush.
- And what if cracks appear as the foundation shrinks? Such damage is repaired by deep impregnation with cement mortar. The dried solution is coated with emulsion paint.
It is also recommended to plaster a crack in a wall with cementitious plasticizers - plaster of paris, alabaster, slaked lime.
The use of gypsum accelerates the hardening of the solution, in addition, with the addition of gypsum, the mixture does not settle during operation. The addition of lime is only necessary for the repair of external walls, since the lime mortar is only well hardened with free access to air currents.
Repairing cracks on drywall
Reasons for plasterboard walls cracking:
- Incorrect installation of the frame and fastening of the drywall;
- Incorrectly prepared putty mortar;
- High humidity in the room or temperature difference.
Drywall as a building material absorbs moisture well, in addition, a wet sheet metal can be deformed and, after drying, retain a curved shape. A strongly curved sheet metal or a section of the wall in drywall can only be replaced with a new sheet metal. Horizontal, diagonal or vertical slots in the drywall of the house can be repaired as follows:
- Hammer the crack with putty or fill it with acrylic;
- For plastering and applying a fiberglass flap, for applying putty, for covering the smeared area with a final layer of building mix.
Before the repair, the wall surface is processed:
- The old plaster sticks, the construction site is cleaned;
- Putty is made from the finished dry mix in the proportions: two parts of dry mortar to one part of water;
- The putty layer should not be more than 2 mm. It is necessary to close not only the cracked area, but also 5-10 cm of the adjacent surface.
- If a reinforcement mesh is used, it is not stretched over the damaged area, but hammered into the slot with subsequent plastering.
- After the solution has dried (1.5-2 hours), the surface is sanded and cleaned of dust.
Cracks in a concrete wall
Disproportionate concrete mortar in the manufacture of concrete walls (slabs) - the main reason for the formation of cracks. When concrete is poured into the form (formwork), it must always be rammed with a vibration compactor, in extreme cases bayoneted with a shovel or crowbar. The air remaining in the concrete not only weakens the structure of the material, but also promotes the movement of moisture into the pores, which in the cold leads to cracks in the concrete. However, it is not enough just to make and pour the right mortar - concrete needs constant maintenance, especially at the beginning of the hardening process. Freshly poured concrete must be covered with an impregnation agent so that the moisture does not evaporate quickly and unevenly from the surface. If the concrete layers are not saturated with moisture, the top, drier layer will crack as the wet concrete below expands and puts pressure on it.
Most often, cracks appear on walls exposed to contrasting temperatures, that is, on the street. When freezes in winter, the moisture in the cracks expands and a crack grows in a weak spot on the wall. If reinforcement appears on the way of such a gap, it will begin to rust, weakening the entire structure. Therefore, in order to avoid numerous repairs, the building must be regularly checked for new defects on the walls to prevent their further development.
If the concrete wall is cracked, it can be repaired by doing the following:
- With a blow or a hammer with a chisel, the crack is deepened and widened, the area is cleaned of dust and moistened. If there is an open reinforcement in the crack, it is deleted.
- The ratio of the solution is 1: 3 with the addition of glue "Bustilat" or "PVA";
- If the crack is deep, then put a reinforcing mesh and put a solution on top, which is smoothed with a spatula.
- After the solution has set, the irregularities are ground with a grinder.
Cracks definitely need to be repaired, even if they are small and small, as there is always a risk of their growth.
If cracks were formed in the wall, then it is imperative to remove them, since there are niches brick house can lead to its destruction. Cracks indicate destruction or deformation of the foundation. How do you close a crack in the wall of a brick house? You can prepare the solution yourself or you can contact a professional craftsman who will be able to fix the crack quickly and efficiently. At the same time, it should be noted that only a professional in the construction industry can find the real reason for the appearance of cracks in the walls.
Why do cracks appear in the walls of houses?
It is known that after construction, any building takes several years to take a stable position. It can shrink up to this point. However, the cement-based mortar hardens very quickly. This "speed imbalance" can crack and cause walls to lose strength. Lime mortar isn't that whimsical because its rate of hardening is lower. Probably here lies the secret of the longevity of old buildings that are already over a hundred years old - many of them will give opportunities to new buildings adorned with cracks.
Damage itself is classified according to various criteria, including:
- reasons for appearing (due to construction, deformation, shrinkage, temperature, wear)
- direction (horizontal, vertical or diagonal cracks)
- "Pattern" of cracks on the walls (straight, curve)
- damage size (small cracks, developed or large)
- kind of crack (Walls can burst, tear, "crush")
- risk of cracks in the wall (In some cases, damage to the wall of a brick house can not bother the owners of the building for years, in other cases - urgent overhaul, otherwise, at first glance, damage, such as cracks, seemingly harmless, can destroy the structure)
There are a variety of reasons for cracks in bricks and other walls. Among the most common:
- bottom ass (In other words, builders call this uneven sedimentation of the soil). A dense area is replaced with a weak one, as a result of which the foundation spreads unevenly and water gets into the niches. As a result, cracks appear, which can extend to the edges of the walls.
- the ground was frozen and thawed unsuccessfully. Because of this, the foundation can rise unevenly (usually in cases where the "bottom" of the foundation is above the level of the point where the ground is frozen). Damage to masonry of this type is dangerous, especially to a new building under construction. If, on the contrary, the soil thaws in the spring, then the opposite situation can be observed, and the foundation shrinks - as a result, cracks appear on the walls too
- added a new room - In this case, problems such as cracks also arise. The floor is additionally loaded, which leads to inclined cracks
- the load on the foundation of the building is unevenly distributed. Accordingly, the bottom sediment is uneven, which leads to cracks in brick houses
- dig a pit near the building - It can also cause cracks in the wall. Similar deformation occurs when the pit is close
- adjacent foundations concern a wall
- there are loads on the foundation and consequently on the walls of the building (even if a large number of heavy objects are placed next to the floor, it can affect the floor, and then the wall of the building)
- there is a sharp mechanical impact on the walls (e.g. stack clogged)
- temperature effect (sudden jumps from heat to cold and vice versa can severely affect the walls)
- deformation changes occur due to the shrinkage of the new building (They are not dangerous and often such cracks do not reach the edges of the wall.)
Cracks at the junction of walls are also considered to be out of danger. One look from a professional builder is enough to understand whether or not help is urgently needed to build. To safely avoid dangers, you can order a special diagnosis and advice and, in the event of a small problem, carry out repairs yourself.
How to repair a crack in the wall of a house - ways
It is better to start this process after the building has completely gone through the period of contraction - otherwise the repair of the walls will simply be useless. To control the crack and its movement, you can use a plaster of paris bag - it is located where damage can occur. If the sack did not burst for some time, then most likely the cracks stopped growing and the walls were safe. In addition, beacons with a special scale are used to control the gap.
So, removing a crack in the house wall will help with the following methods:
- cement mortar (but it is suitable for minor damage, up to five millimeters)
- use of brick castle (Remove the damaged stone and replace it with a new one.)
- metal anchor insert - It is used exactly where crack propagation is observed in the masonry. For example, if there is damage on top, the anchor will be placed on top and vice versa
- if the building is in danger of being completely destroyed, more powerful methods must be used. For example, install steel bars that will become some kind of cover for a wall
How to repair damage yourself
It is necessary to carefully monitor the condition of a building and control the occurrence of damage. The sooner a problem such as a cracked brick is noticed, the greater the chances of saving the structure. Choosing independent repair, you need to keep in mind that not all masonry restoration methods are suitable for repairing cracks without special equipment. Most often, lovers, most of all, in a simple way, enjoy such repairs - cement mortar. It allows you to work with improvised resources and does not require any special professional skills. If there is a need to close the crack in a building whose walls are threatened with destruction, then you should turn to professional craftsmen.
How to make a cement mortar
Nevertheless, if you want to solve the problem yourself and cover the walls with cement-based mortar, you need a "recipe" for such a mixture. Most of the time it looks like this:
- cement (order 270 kg)
- sand (order 2.1 thousand kg)
- water (order 350 l)
The proportions may vary depending on the equipment used to repair the walls. For example, to make a solution in a concrete mixer, there is another recipe - in liters you will need:
- cement (33)
- water (54)
- sand (206)
With such proportions you can prepare a solution 200 liters.
How to close cracks in the walls of a brick building
It is better to cover damaged walls with several layers of mortar, alternately letting each layer dry. Special skills, as mentioned above, are not required. To do the job, you will need a trowel and bowl to mix the mortar (or cement mixer).
To know what it can be repaired with, you first need to find out the reason why it occurred and what material the walls are made of. Cracks can appear for several reasons: a violation of the technology of masonry, stone work, concreting, drywall work, incorrectly dosed or incorrectly applied plaster, incompatibility of wall materials with surface materials, sharp changes in temperature ... Indeed, the factors that cause cracks to appear in the walls quite a bit, so let's look at each case individually.
How to fix a crack in the wall made of plaster.
Cracks in - this is the most common problem both inside and outside the building. They almost always form on cement-sand plaster. Basically, they are thin cracks with thick hair that are like a spider web along the entire wall. They are especially noticeable after priming the plaster. Basically, this happens if the proportion of mixing the components of the solution, their incorrect application, aging and care after plastering is violated. Cracks can also appear if the plaster is applied at the same time and immediately with a thick layer of more than 2-3 cm. This is not possible as it is a breach of technology.
Cracks in the plaster also appear after filling, painting or, to prevent this from happening, intensified before the final putty. Different types of materials can be used for this: a spider web, a glass wallpaper or a fiberglass web. Since broken glass is much more expensive than any other material, we will not deal with them but just say that the principle of gluing is the same as gluing fiberglass.
Most of the best option for this is fiber optic. It is glued on a dry and primed base with a special glue for broken glass. Then it can be puttied with finishing putty or painted without putty. Due to their structure, fiberglass or broken glass reinforce the surface and there are no cracks.
How to fix a crack in a wall.
Cracks in a wall usually form for several reasons: shrinkage of a new house, lack of reinforcement in the wall, violation of masonry technology and non-compliance with the proportions of masonry mortar. The crack "bends" - clears, deepens and expands at an angle of 45 degrees in all directions and is primed. There are several types of waterproofing: with the same solution that the wall was laid on, or with some kind of joint sealant. The sealant is best for this because it turns to rubber as it dries and thereby expands and contracts without cracking, which is not possible with a normal solution. The sealant is placed in the seam with a construction gun and the excess is cleaned with a metal or rubber flush with the wall or metal. Silicone sealants cannot be used for this purpose as they are greasy and do not adhere to paint, putty, and putty. Sealing cracks with sealant is not a cheap process, but it is justified. When coating cracks in a wall with cement mortar, the prepared slot is moistened with water and coated with a solution. Cement mortar can be replaced with a similar one, but based on cement: tile adhesive, cement plaster in bags and the like.
Like from drywall.
Cracks in drywall appear at the seams for several reasons. The most basic of these is a violation of the installation technology metal frames and screw plates GKL. To do this, check out our article, Installing walls from drywall. Another of the most common causes is a violation of the technology of plastering and sealing drywall joints. But there are other reasons, which are quite rare: a sharp drop in temperature in the room, humidity or a flood. The drywall sheets deform when they come into contact with water and, after drying, remain in a curved shape that can no longer be fixed. Therefore, drywall must be completely replaced after the flood.
There are several ways to repair a crack in a drywall wall: filling and covering with putty to seal drywall joints or acrylic. Or the same, but on top of the seam or on top of the entire plane, glue fiberglass, putty, sand, paint or. The second method is more expensive and time consuming, but also more reliable. Both methods are applicable only in situations where the frame for drywall is not loosely and firmly attached to the wall.
Self-cleaning and sealing cracks in the wall
There are two main types of plaster: plaster for exterior walls and plaster for interior walls. As a rule, one and the other are applied with a layer thickness of 15 mm. Plaster on cement mortar is used for the exterior walls, and the interior walls are often coated with softer lime mortar. On a rough and hygroscopic basis, the plaster is usually applied in one layer. However, to make this finish more durable, you sometimes need to apply it in two or even three coats.
Special skills require working with plaster, which is applied by spraying. In this case, the solution (for external walls it is made in the following ratio: 1 part cement, 3 parts sand; for internal walls: 1 part lime, 4 parts sand) with a sharp movement of the hand is thrown hands on the wall so that it is firm lies on it. “Pancake.” If the throw is weak, the solution is on the wall with a lump that quickly slips off the wall.
Here you can also read about the manufacture of various solutions - How to make mortar for masonry and plaster with your own hands. Solution recipes
The stucco thrown on the wall is smoothed with a wooden grater and worked from bottom to top in a sideways direction. Possible defects (notches) are eliminated with the help of a mason's trowel: the solution is rubbed into the plastered surface with a triangular trowel.
When decorating large walls, so-called "beacons" are attached at a distance of approx. 1.5 m (the easiest way is even wooden boards). The work associated with installing stucco beacons is perhaps the most responsible. Ultimately, their leading edges determine the position of the surface of the applied plaster, since the tool smoothing the plaster moves along these edges.
In this case, the wall is plastered with sections between the lighthouses, and after removing the lighthouses, they close these sections and align them with the joints.
After eliminating irregularities, the plastered wall is treated with a grater, making spiral movements. The applied plaster is exposed to light for about half an hour and only then is it grouted - it becomes easier.
You can then apply various types of plaster to this base layer of plaster of paris. In particular, spray the plaster with a brush or a special plastering machine. To get a smooth plastered wall, the layer of surface plaster is smoothed with a steel trowel or a trowel. In addition, after plastering, plaster is sometimes also applied as gypsum plaster as a cover. Alternatively, you can give the wall a rude, rustic look by treating the layer of plaster with a corn dipper.
There are many ways to plaster masonry. But all of this work requires patience and skill. Before venturing on any of them, the first thing you should do is practice a little on a part of the wall that is going to be trimmed.
How to learn to plaster - plaster your wall easiest - instructions
The inexperienced plasterer needs the following tools and aids: a mortar tank, large and small wooden graters, a steel trowel, a triangular trowel, a cleaning brush, a water bucket, a brush, small trowels for grouting shallow recesses. You can prepare the stucco mix yourself. However, ready-made plaster mixes are also offered for internal and external work, sufficient to be diluted with water.
The plaster is applied with a spatula with a spray and thrown on the wall with a sharp movement of the brush. In order for the plaster to adhere firmly to the wall, it must have an appropriate consistency.
The plaster attached to the wall is leveled with a large wooden grater, which is lightly supported on it.
Depressions and cracks are closed with a plaster mortar and smoothed with a triangular trowel. When decorating a section of wall near an outside corner, a plate is attached to an adjacent wall as a stop limiter for plaster.
The stucco applied to the wall is treated with a wooden grater, which makes spiral movements, pressing the entire surface onto the stucco. It always gets easier to work when the plaster is allowed to dry a little.
The top layer of the plaster solution is applied to a slightly dried plaster with the help of a steel trowel and smoothed. And here the tool works from the bottom up.
With a brush that is constantly dipped in water, the plaster that has just been applied to the wall can be treated with a "rustic" look. “At the same time, they don't drive the brush onto the plaster, they just dab it on its surface, which gradually takes the form of a plaster applied by spraying.
The cleaning machine is filled with a liquid solution. As the brush rotates, the solution is sprayed onto the plastered surface.
On top of the plaster, gypsum is also applied as a cover to the walls within the site. The latter is applied in a thin layer with a steel trowel. Walls prepared in this way can be painted or wallpapered. However, the precoat is allowed to dry thoroughly.
You can also find information on plastering on our website here and here - this is how you will learn how to plaster interior walls correctly
FILLING AND REPAIRING CRACKS ON OWN WALLS
Cracks not only affect the appearance of plastered walls. Failure to repair the cracked plaster in a timely manner can cause more serious damage to both the plaster layer and the masonry. This is especially true for exterior walls, which are more prone to moisture and low temperatures. Through existing cracks in the plaster, moisture can penetrate the masonry and freeze there. At the same time, the plaster falls off and the masonry collapses. Timely sealing of cracks not only puts the wall in order, but also prevents its further destruction.
Before proceeding with the renovation of the plastered wall, it is necessary to repair all the cracks and chips, as these are not completely covered by either paint or wallpaper.
The easiest way to repair plaster of paris with streaked and shrinkage microcracks. In this case, it is enough to simply treat the damaged areas with a pound of deep waterproofing, which will increase penetration into the plaster. Old wallpaper and paint must of course be removed beforehand. Let the pound dry, painting over the cracks with a thick emulsion paint.
Cracks resulting from internal stresses or larger cracks that are formed during the shrinkage of the structure are closed. When repairing external walls, only weatherproof materials should be used.
When repairing concrete walls with cement plaster, special emulsions (for example, PCI emulsion) have proven useful, in which you only need to add cement and mix. The resulting mixture is applied to cracked plaster with a brush.
The most difficult thing is to restore the layer of plaster, which has cracks due to uneven deposition of the building, which can occur for various reasons.
Cracks from the colonization of the building, close-up. However, these cracks can keep recurring until the building's settlement process comes to a standstill.
How to repair cracks on the walls yourself - instructions for beginners
Torn due to static loads and shrinkage of the walls, the plaster is repaired as follows. First, the crack is widened.
Then the surface of the expanded crack is abundantly moistened with a brush or sponge. After that, the trowel or trowel rub the repair compound into the crack.
Until the repair compound takes hold, a strip of gauze or a special serpentine tape is applied over it and pressed firmly so that its edges protrude beyond the edges of the crack.
It is unlikely that seams between structural elements (especially if they are made of different materials) will be reliably sealed with plaster of paris mortar. To do this, you need a sealant that will remain elastic. In any case, however, the seam must first be cleaned of the remnants of the solution.
The construction joint is filled with a special silicone sealant that is pressed out of the plastic cartridge with a gun so that the sealant penetrates as deeply as possible into the joint.
Immediately after filling the seam, the surface of the sealant is smoothed with the thumb of the hand, the finger being regularly moistened with an aqueous cleaning solution.
Cracks caused by building malfunctions usually extend the full thickness of the wall. To accurately determine the nature of the damage, the plaster in the crack area is knocked down with a hammer.
The rickety bricks are reinforced by filling the masonry joints with cement mortar. Of course, you should first remove the old grout from the cracked joints. A reinforcement wire mesh is laid and nailed to the free area of the wall.
First, plaster of paris is applied to the solid mesh to roughly level it, and then - done.
The applied plaster is smoothed with a grater moistened in water, making circular movements.
After the new plaster has dried, the repaired wall section is primed or applied with a suitable protective compound. Such a base is suitable for wallpapering or wallpapering. In either case, the patched tear will not be plunged into the eyes.
How to close a crack in a wall of a house and repair a crack in a load-bearing wall made of bricks, concrete
Cracks form for various reasons, but the main cause of cracks inside walls is the shrinkage of the building. If plaster chips or cracks were found during the repair process, they must be puttied and reinforced immediately before wallpapering. We recommend using so-called reinforced adhesive tape.
Cracks in the interior walls can creep in if they are not repaired in a timely manner. They need to be repaired with an edge so as not to endanger the formation of new cracks in adjacent sections of plaster.
How and what to repair a crack in the wall of the house with your own hands
Some tips on how to repair a crack in the wall with your own hands. First, you need to clean the damaged part of the wall free of bits of plaster and vacuum properly.
Repairing cracks in the wall is not difficult, provided you follow the advice of professionals. In most cases, putty should be diluted in the following ratio: two parts of the filling powder in one part of water. The putty mass is applied with a spatula or the so-called trowel with a layer of 1-2 mm. It is necessary to putty not only the crack itself, but also the next stain of plaster.
The reinforced adhesive tape is placed in the slot itself and trowelled until it is no longer visible. After 90 minutes the putty should dry. Then it needs to be cleaned easily and the dust wall cleaned. Then the wall can be painted, glued with wallpaper or covered with other materials.
If the gap is quite large, you will need to moisten it with water first before closing the crack in the wall. To repair cracks with your own hands, in addition to putty, you will need the following materials: scissors, scrapers, brush, grinder or sanding block.
Filling cracks in a masonry concrete wall to remove cracks in load-bearing walls
Over time, cracks appear in the walls of buildings, which are usually caused by soil precipitation. Cracks that appear increase air permeability and reduce the heat protection of the fence. Crack sealing in brick walls less than 5-6 mm is done with cement mortar, which consists of one part cement and three parts sand. To get rid of wide cracks, you need to disassemble the old masonry and arrange a new one.
The crack sealing in a concrete wall is usually done with PVA glue and cement mortar. This is the most consistent method of filling cracks in a concrete structure. After cleaning the surface of the crack, apply PVA glue, fill the cavity with cement mortar, and then use a spatula to smooth it out so that it is flush with the rest of the wall.
Crack sealing in load-bearing walls is carried out using the same technology as in brick walls, but only if the crack is insignificant and does not increase. After all, cracks in the load-bearing walls can lead to serious accidents and put people's lives at risk. Cracks in partition walls or, more simply, on curtain walls can lead to local and less dangerous collapses. Therefore, if the crack on the load-bearing wall increases noticeably, then you should contact the appropriate customer service for help. Processed
How do you repair a crack in a wall? Brick is the most common building material used for the construction of buildings. But the disadvantage is cracks in the wall of a brick house that appear during operation.
Eliminating such a disadvantage is not particularly difficult. In this case, you need to identify the causes of cracks and choose the right technological processwhat is recommended to learn from this article.
What are the causes of cracks and their types
Tip: To spot cracks in the masonry, visually inspect the entire house. Pay attention to the direction of expansion of the split.
The direction of the cracks is influenced by the load on the wall.
- The vertical load reduces the expansion.
- If the foundation sags, the cracks expand upward.
- As the material wears, numerous cracks open closer to the surface.
Cracks can be:
- Constructive. Such causes of cracks in brick walls arise from:
- an error in the calculation of the depth of the foundation;
- wrongly chosen wall load;
- non-compliance with the technology of house building;
- the brand of masonry mortar does not correspond to the current loads.
- lack of wall reinforcement.
- Temperature. Such defects arise from:
- freezing the foundation;
- temperature differences.
- Shrinkage. Your reasons can be:
- foundation pit near the house;
- the building is being erected on bulk material.
- Deformation. Wrong material selected.
- Against wear. All materials have a certain lifespan.
In the appearance and depth of a crack there are:
- Closed or not going to the edges of the wall.
The size of the gap is divided into:
- Wide, more than an inch.
- Medium, 5 to 10 millimeters.
- Small, up to 5 millimeters.
This is how you check cracks for stabilization of their further expansion
Tip: Repairing cracks in a wall should only begin after the process of further elevation is fully exposed.
The elimination of cracks in the brick walls of the house is carried out after the final determination of the causes of their appearance and the end of the process of shrinking. To understand whether the cracking process has ended, you need to do a special pull test.
This is done with:
- Plaster beacons.
- Plate beacons with a special scale.
You can determine the stabilization:
- Glue paper on the crack.
- By applying a strip of cement.
After a period of time, any remaining paper or strip will indicate that crack repair in the wall can be done. If you continue the deformation process, you will have to wait for its completion. At this point, do all the repairs - it makes no sense, the crack will reappear.
How to fix cracks in a brick house
Before closing a crack in a wall, it is necessary to prepare tools and materials.
They can be:
- A small spatula for easy mixing of the solution.
- Capacity for the mix.
- Construction trowel.
- A hammer.
- Scarpel for stone processing.
- Polyurethane foam.
- River sand.
- Metal rollers.
- Anchor bolts.
Depending on what type of crack is in the wall of a brick house, the option of waterproofing is selected. For shallow cracks up to 5 millimeters wide, a permanent mortar made of cement or plaster of paris is used.
In this case, the repair of the crack is carried out with your own hands in the following order:
- Preparatory work is recorded. The slots are cleaned by:
- The cavity is abundantly wetted with water and allowed to dry.
- The crack is treated with putty or cement mortar.
- Reinforced tape is laid.
- A layer of cement mortar or putty is applied to the adhesive tape.
To seal cracks up to one centimeter wide, the instructions offer:
- Remove cracked masonry surfaces.
- Clean the repair area of dirt and dust.
- Re-coat the surfaces (see. Why do we need a primer: technological nuances in painting and decorating).
- Drill holes for dowels in steps of 25-50 cm.
- Attach a metal grid with 5x5 mm mesh size at the top with screws.
- Cover the grid with gypsum cement mortar and add a small amount of sand.
- Finishing material is applied.
Sealing of wide cracks is carried out in the following order:
- Broken stones are removed from the outside of the wall.
- The defective area is cleaned of dirt and dust with rubble.
- New bricks are laid on cement mortar.
- Such cracks can be eliminated with the help of a metal anchor, as in the photo, which is a plate with two pins or anchors on it.
Tip: cracks more than an inch wide are critical defects in the walls of the house that require special repair methods.
To get rid of them you will need:
- Clean the damaged area from debris.
- Fill the defect with foam.
- Let it dry completely.
- Cut the foam to a depth of two inches.
- Pour the resulting recess with a cement sand or cement composition.
- Apply finishing material.
If there is no way to dismantle the cracked masonry of the building, here is what you can do:
- The repair area is cleaned of dirt and dust.
- The slots are sealed with cement mortar.
- T-shaped strong anchors are driven into the cracks, which are necessary for fastening with dowels on both sides of the slot. They are attached to the surface of the building wall.
How to close through cracks
To get rid of such defects, you can strengthen the walls.
In this case:
- Preliminary work is carried out: damaged areas are freed from the old coating, dirt and dust.
- The crack is wetted with water and given time to dry.
- The gap is filled with cement mortar and crushed stone of a small fraction.
- If necessary, steel plates are attached with anchors and dowels.
- Are produced finishing work on damaged parts of the walls of the building.
Clearance gaps can be eliminated with metal clips.
- metal plates - two-part;
- screws for tightening are passed through the wall.
Tip: To prevent the crack from opening further, steel staples should be hammered into the wall on either side of the crack. Bend their ends to the wall and secure them with screws.
- Before fastening, the screw holes are filled with cement.
- Large defects are eliminated by installing multiple brackets.
- The crack itself is cemented, as in other cases.
How to get rid of cracks in brick walls and dangerous cracks
A metal clip is used for cracks that appeared on the walls of the outer brick walls. Depending on the width of the wall, the sizes of the cage and its design are selected. To get rid of serious cracks that threaten to destroy the house, metal bars are placed on both sides of the wall. This allows the building to cover a strong steel bracing.
This is how you eliminate foundation errors
Cracks can often be caused by defects in the foundation.
When reinforcing the foundation, further cracks and creep can be excluded.
- A trench digs along the cracking area, no thicker than a monolithic base, but with a depth slightly lower than the bottom edge.
- The crack site is cleaned, freed from poorly retaining elements, cement mortar is slightly raised.
- The construction site is drilled vertically and horizontally under reinforcement.
- Anchors are woven and welded with reinforcement. The distance between the reinforcement is 0.6 to 1 meter, which depends on the size of the crack. The created structure becomes the framework that connects the house to a new reinforced base.
- Mounted wooden formwork.
- Concrete is poured.
- Billed for drying, approx. 28 days.
- A blind area is created.
Paper beacons check the elimination of the cracking process.
After the restoration of the foundation, the walls are repaired:
- Damage up to 5 millimeters is sealed with a cement mortar, the edges are broken off, cleaned and moistened so that they adhere well to the mortar.
- Cracks larger than one centimeter are sealed with cement and sand in a ratio of 1: 3.
If there are large cracks in the brick walls, immediate measures are required:
- The masonry is dismantled from above, damaged parts are removed. New stones are stacked with a lock reinforced with metal bars, profile corners or metal strips.
- When the masonry breaks, metal strips are taken, their ends bent into the masonry and pushed out with bolts, anchors and screws.
Tip: if such methods cannot be used, pour gravel with cement into the gap. T-shaped anchors must be driven in at a distance of approx. 25 cm on both sides. Elements are connected by metal strips.
- Deep cracks that cannot be completely covered with cement are filled by injecting the solution. For this purpose, holes with a diameter of more than 25 millimeters are made in steps of 20 centimeters around the perimeter of the slot. A tube with a solution is inserted into the holes. A seal is pumped through them into the slot with a pump or vacuum syringe, carefully filling the cavities.
In the case of very large cracks in the brick walls, repair work is carried out from the outside and inside, if the masonry has broken through.
- The site is deleted, its edges are processed.
- The crack is deeply moistened, filled with gravel and cement.
- If necessary, steel plates are installed, which are fastened with dowels and anchors.
- After drying, the wall is covered with plaster of paris or other facing.
How to strengthen brick walls
Tip: If after the repair work on the walls there are no results, then some of them will need to be rearranged.
For a guaranteed fortress of a cracked wall, it is advisable to reinforce it from the inside of the building.
- Close crack.
- The imposition of a lock or a metal profile.
- The lock is attached to the wall with anchors, and the gap overlaps it, preventing future enlargement.
- Repairs can be carried out with metal brackets, the ends of which should protrude into the wall to a depth of at least half the thickness of the wall, in which holes for the brackets should be drilled beforehand.
- After a day, such a repaired wall can be put into operation. In any case, however, it can not be heavily loaded - the wall will not reach its full strength for a month.
If cracks appear due to an improperly poured foundation, the best solution is to reinforce the foundation with an auxiliary concrete tape.
- It is dug around the entire perimeter of the house with a trench deeper than the depth of the foundation.
- It fits in the auxiliary belt.
- In order to avoid further cracks in the masonry, the substrate is poured using the appropriate technology.
What cracks can appear in brick walls, their cause and methods of getting rid of them, see the video in this article. Cracks in the masonry are very common. The cost of solving this problem is different, and it is worth getting rid of it immediately in order to avoid a violation of the integrity of the structure of the residential building.
Almost all finishing and repair work closes cracks in the walls. Such shortcomings occur for various reasons and cause many inconveniences. The fact is that if you do not get rid of the problem in a timely manner, the consequences can be extremely unpleasant. After a while, the deformations gradually increase and delamination occurs. If the defects are deep, the chances of cold bridges are high, which contributes to the formation of mold and fungus.
It should be noted that cracks in the wall can appear due to various factors:
In fact, if you determine the cause and choose the right composition for alignment, the appearance of cracks in the walls can be almost completely eliminated. Of course, it is not possible to compensate for some of the nuances, but it is likely that the magnitude of their effects will decrease. When working with newly erected objects, it is better to use mixtures for plastic cladding. For showers and bathrooms, it is necessary to use solutions based on cement with the addition of polymers. Plaster versions are constantly collapsing.
On a note! Completely correcting the shortcomings that have occurred is a rather expensive undertaking, so it is entirely possible to get by with a simple shutdown.
Crack sealing materials
The question of how to close the crack is very important. correct choice of material depends on the type of coating. The most common options are:
- Cement-sand mixture and its varieties. Ideal for repairing damage to concrete and brick walls. The best result is achieved in compounds with the addition of plasticizers, in which shrinkage is practically not observed.
- Plastering and Kitten. They can be made on the basis of various substances. Cement and plaster are considered popular. Each option is selected for plastered walls so that the foundations coincide.
- Sealant. Serve to compensate for minor damage. It must be borne in mind that acrylic-based products will perform best if it is used correctly. Silicone sealants are not used for this process.
The main difficulties are covered by wooden houses. To get rid of the shortcomings that appear in it, it is advisable to use special compositions. Many masters advise to seal the cracks in advance, and then cover them with putty on wood.
Crack sealing options for different surfaces
To properly close a crack in the wall, you need to focus on the material from which the coating is made. Before performing this procedure, make sure that defects do not indicate serious problems with the supporting structures.
Damage to brick walls is usually divided into two categories: up to 5mm or more, so there are two ways to do work.
The first option is pretty simple and is as follows:
- The process begins with expansion. This procedure is a slight increase in the gap. The main thing is to widen the edges with a hammer, but you should not get carried away.
- Thoroughly cleaned. The accumulated residue and dust should be completely removed. The place is pre-wetted by the spray gun.
- A simple cement mix is made. A trowel or spatula is used for application.
- The solution is poured into the existing recesses and wiped off well. It is important to get a level surface.
Sealing cracks in a wall larger than 5 mm is done with greater caution. Initially, the amount of damage is estimated at square meters. If the defects are in a large area, it is advisable to partially disassemble the masonry to replace the damaged fragments. If there is a part of the wall, typical for private houses, due to cracks and subsidence, then additional reinforcement of the rows will completely shift the entire area.
But if such large-scale work is not necessary, then a crack in the wall can be repaired according to the scheme:
- The first actions exactly repeat the previous sequence, but the work is provided with a cement-sand mixture with special additives that give elasticity to the composition.
- Damage is carefully treated with a deeply penetrating primer that increases adhesion.
- The solution is applied gradually to ensure that it penetrates to full depth. To do this, the composition is literally squeezed until excesses appear.
- All sides are well leveled.
It often happens that the resulting gap leads to the weakening of several bricks in the center and along the edge of the masonry. At the same time, it is impossible to disassemble the structure, and it is problematic to use liquid solutions. Then polyurethane foam comes to the rescue. Small rigid struts are preset so that the stones take their place and the damage is carefully foamed. After drying, everything is cut flush with the surface.
The damage is assessed first. The fact is that cracks in the plaster can be the result of a defect in the substrate. If the cracks in the wall are deep, it is advisable to dismantle the entire layer of plaster and get rid of the root cause. Often, however, it is only necessary to carry out internal work.
When closing, they are based on the following principles:
- If the coating is used as a basis for facing decorative materials, then the process is not particularly difficult. The main thing is to choose a composition that is suitable for the structure. Sealing is done with a spatula. First, the solution is applied while the tool is held vertically, and then aligned in parallel movements.
- Sometimes it happens that plaster of paris plays an independent decorative role. For example, it is applied when creating various textures. Then more tedious work will be done - the texture of the damaged area will be restored.
- In the case of numerous small cracks, the coating is treated with a brush with a very liquid gypsum composition.
In general, cracks on the plastered surface are an alarm signal that can indicate that there are numerous voids under the layer.
When deciding how to repair cracks on the wall of drywall, it should be borne in mind that such damage most often occurs on the joints of the sheets. If there are defects on the panels themselves, the reason may be improper installation or a violation of the integrity of the frame. For example, the sheet metal is deformed if the required gaps between the ceiling and floor are not present. Therefore, it is recommended first to eliminate the cause.
Gaps in the joints of GKL panels are removed as follows:
- The connection is completely freed from the old structure, the connection is carried out. The seam should be in the shape of the Latin letter V. The spot is treated with a primer.
- Putty is prepared and applied evenly.
- A reinforcing tape is applied, which is smeared into the surface, after which everything is leveled and sanded.
Cracks in the joints of drywall are eliminated using the technology of waterproofing joints
On a note! If there are numerous cracks to be eliminated, a general surface treatment with additional reinforcement with fiberglass is carried out.
A crack in a concrete wall can be repaired according to a scheme similar to other options:
- Use a hammer and chisel to widen the gap. The depth should not be less than 5 mm. This is necessary for a stronger fixation of the solution.
- Dust and dirt are cleaned. A primer treatment and, in the presence of a reinforcement, anti-corrosive agents should be provided.
- A cement-sand mixture is made.
- The solution is applied with a spatula. If the gap is deep and long enough, it is recommended to reinforce it with a simple wire.
- The surface is finally leveled.
Thus the method is quite simple and ideal for sealing holes in the walls that are formed for various reasons.
- What are the sites for learning science
- What are the most popular sublime songs
- What are pre-sales and post-sales
- Have weed leaves THC
- Can someone guide me through WordPress
- Should be trusted girls for love marriage
- What is an international child abduction
- Is Blender future-proof
- How do H + ions escape in water
- Why do many Americans like to camp?
- Which is the best IAS coaching in
- What are ClickFunnels Complaints
- How do I date a basketball player
- How to plant apple seeds
- MRI results can be incorrect
- When were public libraries first created?
- Why do elephants hit their ears?
- What is substance in chemistry
- How does Annex K relate to EPFO
- Paneer is available in the US
- How does this work
- What is the English name of Tulsi
- How do I get over disappointment
- How much do pit bull puppies cost