Do psychopaths have a terrifying expression


An outline of the hereditary processes on which psychopathies are based would be very brief if one wanted to limit oneself to the presentation of established and possibly finally developed facts. Compared with what genetic research in the area of ​​simple somatic traits or even in that of experimental genetics has produced clearly manageable results, the state of research in the border area between normal and pathological psychological events, which is commonly referred to as "psychopathy", is downright disheartening .

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Special hint

This chapter is part of the Springer Book Archives digitization project with publications that have appeared since the publisher's inception in 1842. With this archive, the publisher provides sources for both historical and disciplinary research, which must be viewed in a historical context. This chapter is from a book that was published before 1945 and is therefore not advertised by the publisher in its political-ideological orientation typical of the time.


I. Summary presentations

  1. Baeyer, W. y .: On the genealogy of psychopathic swindlers and liars. Leipzig 1935. Google Scholar
  2. Baur-Fischer-Lenz: Human Heredity, Vol. 1. Munich 1936.Google Scholar
  3. Beringer, K .: The Schizoid. Bumke's Handbook of Mental Illnesses. Berlin 1932.Google Scholar
  4. Bleuler, E .: Textbook of Psychiatry. Berlin 1916. Google Scholar
  5. Bumke, O .: About nervous degeneration. Berlin 1912.Google Scholar
  6. Ewald, G .: Temperament and Character. Monographs Neur. 1924, H. 41. Friedreich, J. B .: General diagnosis of mental illnesses. Würzburg 1832.Google Scholar
  7. Gaupp, R .: On the psychology of mass murder. Berlin 1914. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gruhle, H. W .: Psychopathy. W. Weygandt's textbook on nervous and mental diseases. Halle 1935.Google Scholar
  9. Heinroth, F. C. A .: Textbook of disturbances of the mental life or disturbances of the soul. Leipzig 1818. Google Scholar
  10. Hildebrandt, K .: Norm and degeneration of humans. Dresden 1920.Google Scholar
  11. Hoffmann, H .: The individual development curve of humans. Berlin 1922. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. The problem of character building. Berlin: Julius Springer 1926. Google Scholar
  13. Character and environment. Berlin 1928.Google Scholar
  14. Heredity and Spiritual Life. Berlin 1929. Google Scholar
  15. The layer theory. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke 1935.Google Scholar
  16. Homburger, A .: Childhood Psychopathology. Berlin 1926. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Just, G .: Problems of Personality. Writings on Heredity and Racial Hygiene. Berlin 1934.Google Scholar
  18. Kehrer, F .: Paranoic states. Bumke's Handbook of Mental Diseases, Vol. 6, Part II.Google Scholar
  19. Kehrer, F. and E. Kretschmer: The disposition to mental disorders. Monographs Neur. 1924.Google Scholar
  20. Klages, L .: The basics of character studies. Leipzig 1926. Google Scholar
  21. Koch, I. L. A .: The psychopathic inferiorities. Ravensburg 1891.Google Scholar
  22. Kretschmer, E .: physique and character. Berlin 1921 and 1936. Google Scholar
  23. Kretschmer, E. and W. Enke: The personality of the athlete. Leipzig 1936. Google Scholar
  24. Lange, J .: The Paranoia Question. Aschaffenburg's manual of psychiatry, special part. Leipzig and Vienna 1927. Google Scholar
  25. Crime as fate. Studies on Criminal Twins. Leipzig 1929. Google Scholar
  26. Psychopathy and Hereditary Care. Berlin 1934.Google Scholar
  27. Lottig, H .: Hamburg twin studies. Leipzig 1931.Google Scholar
  28. Panse, F .: Hereditary questions in mental illness. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth 1936.Google Scholar
  29. Pohlisch, K .: Social and personal conditions of chronic alcoholism. Leipzig 1933. Google Scholar
  30. The children of male and female morphinists. Leipzig 1934. Google Scholar
  31. Ritter, R .: A breed of people. Leipzig 1937. Google Scholar
  32. Schneider, K .: The psychopathic personalities. Leipzig and Vienna 1934.Google Scholar
  33. Schröder, P .: Childlike characters and their abnormalities. Breslau 1931.Google Scholar
  34. Stumpfl, F .: Hereditary disposition and crime. E. Rüdins Studies on Heredity and Development of Mental Disorders. Berlin 1935. Google Scholar

II. Individual work

  1. Bauer, J .: Constitutional disposition to internal diseases. Berlin 1924. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berlit, B .: Heredity studies in psychopaths. Z. Neur. 134 (1931). Google Scholar
  3. Contribution to the load statistics of an average population. Z. Neur. 152 (1935). Google Scholar
  4. Berze, J .: The hereditary relationships of dementia praecox. Leipzig and Vienna 1910. Google Scholar
  5. Contributions to psychiatric heredity and constitution research, II. Schizoid, schizophrenia, dementia praecox. Z. Neur. 96 (1925). Google Scholar
  6. Binder, H .: What is nervousness? Switzerland, med. Wschr. 1934 II.Google Scholar
  7. Binswanger, S .: Alcoholism. New German Clinic, Vol. 1, 1928. Google Scholar
  8. Bleuler, E .: Dementia praecox or group of schizophrenias. G. Aschaffenburg's Handbook of Psychiatry. Leipzig and Vienna 1911.Google Scholar
  9. The problems of schizoid and syntony. Z. Neur. 78 (1922). Google Scholar
  10. Psychotic stress on the physically ill. Z. Neur. 142 (1932). Google Scholar
  11. Boeters, D .: Stress statistics of an average Silesian population. Investigations on 211 families. Z. Neur. 155 (1930). Google Scholar
  12. Boeters, H .: Family examinations in an average population with special consideration of symptomatic and delirious conditions. Z. Neur. 153 (1935). Google Scholar
  13. Bonhoeffer, K .: To what extent do psychogenic disease states and disease processes occur that cannot be assigned to hysteria? General Z. Psychiatr. 48 (1911). Google Scholar
  14. About the relationship between obsessions and the manic-depressive. Mschr. Psychiatr. 33 (1913). Google Scholar
  15. Psychological residual states after epidemic encephalitis. Clin. Wschr. 1922 II.Google Scholar
  16. Bormann, H .: On the load statistics of the average population. Z. Neur. 159 (1937). Google Scholar
  17. Boss, M .: On the question of the genetic significance of alcohol. Mschr. Psychiatr. 1929.Google Scholar
  18. Bostroem, A .: On the question of the schizoid. Arch, f. Psychiatr. 77 (1926). Google Scholar
  19. Braun: On the question of the nervous constitution. Zbl. Neur. 60 (1931). Google Scholar
  20. Brugger, C .: On the question of a load statistic of the average population. Z. Neur. 118 (1929). Google Scholar
  21. Attempt to count mental illnesses in Thuringia. Z. Neur. 133 (1931). Google Scholar
  22. Family examinations in chronic alcoholics. Z. Neur. 151 (1934). Google Scholar
  23. Family examinations for alcohol delirants. Z. Neur. 151 (1934). Google Scholar
  24. Studies on children, nephews, nieces and grandchildren of chronic drinkers. Z. Neur. 154 (1936). Google Scholar
  25. Studies of the incidence of the mentally ill in the average population. Gesdh. u. Wohlf. 1937, H. 2nd Google Scholar
  26. Citizen Prince: The question of germ damage. Neurologist 1935, H. 8th Google Scholar
  27. Bumke, O .: What are compulsive processes? Alts Casual Discussions, Vol. 6, 1906. Google Scholar
  28. Carriere, R .: Strange familial stubbornnessGoogle Scholar
  29. no paranoia? General Z. Psychiatr. 86 (1927). Google Scholar
  30. Conrad, K .: Hereditary Disease and Epilepsy. IV and V. Z. Neur. 159 (1937), 162 (1938). Google Scholar
  31. Cramer, A .: Neurasthenia. Lewandowskys Handbuch der Neurologie, Vol. 5. Berlin 1914.Google Scholar
  32. Crinis, de: About the development of the human mind. Med. World 1935, No. 39. Google Scholar
  33. Cronin, J .: An Analysis of the neuroses of identical twins. Psychoanalytic. Rev. 20 (1933). Google Scholar
  34. Curtius, F .: Multiple Sclerosis and Hereditary Disease. Leipzig 1933. Google Scholar
  35. Dennig, H., K. Fischer and K. Beringer: Psyche and vegetative nervous system. German Arch. Clin. Med. 167 (1930). Google Scholar
  36. Dittel, R .: Stress statistics of an average Silesian population. Z. human Heredity 20 (1937). Google Scholar
  37. Dubitscher, F .: The bullshit. Gütts Handbuch der Erbkrankheiten, Vol. 1. Leipzig 1937.Google Scholar
  38. Economo, C. v .: The hereditary conditions in paranoia querulans. Jb. Psychiatr. 36 (1914). Google Scholar
  39. About value of genealogical research for the classification of psychoses, especially paranoia and about the rule of the healthy third. Münch, med. Wschr. 1922 I..Google Scholar
  40. Lethargic encephalitis, its secondary disease and its treatment. Berlin and Vienna 1929.Google Scholar
  41. Edinger, L .: The Relationship of Comparative Anatomy to Comparative Psychology. Ber. 3rd congr. Exper. Psychol. Frankfurt a. M. Ed. by F. Schumann. Leipzig 1909. Google Scholar
  42. Enke, W .: Accident Neurosis and Constitution. General medical status Psychother. 2 (1929). Google Scholar
  43. Psychomotor of the constitutional types. Currently applied Psychol. 36 (1930). Google Scholar
  44. Hereditary biological conditions of personality. Med. Clin. 1934 I.. Entres, J. L .: The causes of mental illness. Heredity, germ damage. Bumkes Handbook of Mental Illnesses, Vol. 1, General Part I. Google Scholar
  45. Ewald, G .: Paranoia and manic-depressive insanity. Z. Neur. 49 (1919). Google Scholar
  46. The manic element in paranoia. Arch. F. Psychiatr. 75 (1925). Google Scholar
  47. Schizophrenia, schizoid, schizothymia. (Critical remarks.) Z. Neur. 77 (1922) .Google Scholar
  48. Personality development under different aspects. Neurologist 1934, H. 6th Google Scholar
  49. Fleck, U .: Hereditary biological investigations with regard to the psychological sequelae of encephalitis epidemica. Arch. F. Psychiatr. 79 (1927). Google Scholar
  50. Fuchs, A .: Severe progressive anankastic development in a case of genuine epilepsy. Arch. F. Psychiatr. 80 (1927). Google Scholar
  51. Gabriel, E .: The progeny of alcoholics, (A genetic investigation.) Arch. F. Psychiatr. 102 (1934). Google Scholar
  52. Gaupp, R .: About the current state of the doctrine of the "born criminal". Mschr. Kriminalpsychol. 1 (1905). Google Scholar
  53. Illness and death of the paranoid mass murderer main teacher Wagner. Z. Neur. 163 (1938). Google Scholar
  54. Gebbing, M .: The genetic make-up in neurotics. German Z. Nervenheilk. 125 (1932). Google Scholar
  55. Geelvink: About the basics of alcoholism. General Z. Psychiatr. 64 (1907). Google Scholar
  56. Gerum: On the hereditary relationship of epileptoid diseases to epilepsy. Zbl. Neur. 75 (1935). Google Scholar
  57. Gerum, K .: Contribution to the question of the genetic biology of genuine epilepsy, epileptoid diseases and epileptoid psychopathy. Z. Neur. 115 (1928). Google Scholar
  58. Göppel, W .: Investigation of the close relatives of Allgäuer Reichsbahn employees on the frequency of psychoses and goiter infestation Z. Neur. 113 (1928). Google Scholar
  59. Göring, M. H .: A hysterical swindler. Z. Neur. 1 (1910). Google Scholar
  60. Griesinger, W .: Pathology and Therapy of Mental Illnesses. Stuttgart 1845. Google Scholar
  61. About a little-known psychopathic condition. Arch. F. Psychiatr. 1 (1868). Google Scholar
  62. Grote and Hartwich: Primordial nanosomy and hysterical disorder in identical twins. Z. Neur. 10 (1925). Google Scholar
  63. Gruhle, H. W .: The abnormal and incorrigible adolescents in welfare education. Z. Neur. 1 (1910). Google Scholar
  64. The causes of adolescent neglect and crime. Berlin 1912.Google Scholar
  65. Hartmann, H .: Psychiatric twin studies. Jb. Psychiatr. 50 (1933). Google Scholar
  66. On the characterology of hereditary twins. Jb. Psychiatr. 52 (1935). Google Scholar
  67. Hartmann, H. and F. Stumpfl: A twin pathological contribution to the question, idiotype, paratype and neurosis. Vienna. med. Wschr. 1928 II.Google Scholar
  68. A contribution to the topic: twin problems of schizophrenia and the question of the inheritance of musical talent. Z. Neur. 143 (1933). Heinze, H .: On the phenomenology of the mind. Z. Kinderforsch. 40 (1932). Google Scholar
  69. Psychopathy and Characterology. Zbl. Neur. 80 (1936). Google Scholar
  70. Hempel, J .: Depression in the vegetative stigmatized. Z. Neur. 158 (1937). Google Scholar
  71. Hering, O .: Investigations into connections between the 4 classic blood groups in connection with the blood cell properties M and N and psychopathic predisposition. Z. exper. Med. 99 (1936). Google Scholar
  72. Zbl. Neur. 84 (1937). Google Scholar
  73. Higier, H .: On the pathology of the nervous system and the psychopathology of the Jews. Zbl. Neur. 70 (1934). Google Scholar
  74. Hoffmann, H .: The constitutional structure and dynamics of the "original" obsessional neurosis. Z. Neur. 80 (1923). Google Scholar
  75. Hereditary personality analysis. Z. Neur. 88 (1924). Google Scholar
  76. Reactive psychoses and neuroses. Progress Neur. 1929. Google Scholar
  77. Psychopathology and Clinic of Obsessive Compulsive Disease. Report of the General Medical Congress on Psychotherapy. Leipzig 1930.Google Scholar
  78. The hereditary results in the theory of neuroses. Ernst E. Rüdins Hereditary Teaching and Racial Hygiene in the Volkish State. Munich 1934.Google Scholar
  79. The questions of heredity in hysteria. Mineralized 4 (1934). Google Scholar
  80. Homburger, A .: An attempt at a typology of the psychopathic constitution. Neurologist 2 (1929). Google Scholar
  81. Ideler, K. W .: Outline of the healing of the soul. Berlin 1835. Google Scholar
  82. Jakoby, M .: Observations on the Pathology and Therapy of Illnesses Associated with Insanity. Elberfeld 1830.Google Scholar
  83. Jaensch, E. R .: Studies on the psychology of human types. Leipzig 1930.Google Scholar
  84. Jaensch, W .: Constitutional and Hereditary Biology in the Practice of Medicine. Leipzig 1934. Google Scholar
  85. Jahn, D .: The physical foundations of the psychasthenic constitution. Neurologist 7 (1934). Google Scholar
  86. Jörger, J .: The Markus family. Z. Neur. 43 (1918). Google Scholar
  87. Psychiatric family stories. Berlin 1919.Google Scholar
  88. Just, G .: inheritance and upbringing. Berlin 1930. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Problems of higher mendelism in humans. Z. Ancestry doctrine 67 (1934). Google Scholar
  90. Kaan, H .: Psychopathia sexualis. Leipzig 1844. Ref. General Z. Psychiatr. 2 (1845). Google Scholar
  91. Kahlbaum: About Heboidophrenia. General Z. Psychiatr. 46 (1890). Google Scholar
  92. Kahn, E .: Discussions on the Relationship Between Hereditary Biology and Clinical Psychiatry. Ref. Z. Neur. 22 (1920). Google Scholar
  93. Studies on heredity and development of mental disorders (IV. Schizoid and schizophrenia in inheritance). Monographs Neur. 1923.Google Scholar
  94. The psychopathic personalities. Manual of mental illnesses, special part, part I. Berlin 1928.Google Scholar
  95. Kattentidt, B .: On the question of a load statistics of the average population. Z. Neur. 103 (1926). Google Scholar
  96. Kehrer, F .: About the nature and causes of homosexuality. German med. Wschr. 1924 I..Google Scholar
  97. Kemp, T .: Prostitution. Copenhagen and London 1936. Google Scholar
  98. Kleist, K .: Reports on endogenous stupidity. General Z. Psychiatr. 75 (1919). Google Scholar
  99. The conception of schizophrenia as mental system diseases (hereditary degenerations). Clin. Wschr. 1923 II.Google Scholar
  100. Current trends in psychiatry. General currently psychiatric 82 (1925). Google Scholar
  101. Klemperer, J .: On the stress statistics of the average population: frequency of psychoses below 1000 subjects selected at random from the birth registers of the city of Munich (born 1881–1890). Z. Neur. 146 (1933). Google Scholar
  102. Koch, I. L. A .: Concise Guide to Psychiatry. Ravensburg 1889.Google Scholar
  103. The question of the born criminal. Ravensburg 1894.Google Scholar
  104. Köhn, W .: The inheritance of character. Studies on twins. Arch. Rassenbiol. 29 (1935). Google Scholar
  105. Kolle, K .: The primary madness. Leipzig 1931.Google Scholar
  106. Paraphrenia and paranoia. Progress Neur. 3 (1931). Google Scholar
  107. The involvement of the manic-melancholic disposition in the development of paraphrase and paranoid psychoses. Z. Neur. 131 (1930) Google Scholar
  108. About "paranoid" psychopaths. Z. Neur. 136 (1931). Google Scholar
  109. The offspring of drinkers with "mad jealousy". Mschr. Psychiatr. 83 (1932). Google Scholar
  110. Krafft-Ebing: Psychopathia sexualis. Stuttgart 1886. Google Scholar
  111. Kramer, F. and R. v. d. Leyen: Developmental courses of "anethical, uncomfortable", psychopathic children. Z. Kinderforsch. 43 (1934).