Vomit is a mycotoxin

Poisoning syndromes

The DGfM technical committee “Mushroom Utilization and Toxicology” has carefully compiled the following information and descriptions of the poisoning syndromes by evaluating the publications mentioned in the “Literature and Sources” chapter and based on their own experience (status 04.12.2015). The basis was in particular R. Flammer (2014): Giftpilze, AT-Verlag Aarau and Munich. 320 pp.

The following information is intended primarily to convey the current state of knowledge to mushroom experts (PSV) but also to medical staff or other interested parties.

This information is important for the PSV and the doctor:

  • who - Who (else) ate the mushrooms?
  • When - When were the mushrooms eaten?
  • Which - Which complaints arose when and in which order?
  • How many Preparation and amount of mushrooms consumed?
  • Repeated Meals in a row?
  • What - What species were the mushrooms collected or bought as?
  • alcohol - Did you drink alcohol?
  • Medication - Have you taken any medication, and if so, which ones?

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1 Common Syndromes

1.1. Phalloides syndrome, Amanitin syndrome

1.2. Gyromitrin Syndrome

1.3. Orellanus Syndrome

1.4. Muscarinic syndrome

1.5. Pantherina Syndrome

1.6. Coprinus syndrome, acetaldehyde syndrome

1.7. Paxillus syndrome (immune hemolysis)

1.8. Psilocybin Syndrome

1.9. Neurological Morchella Syndrome

1.10. Gastrointestinal Syndrome

1.11. Omphalotus Syndrome

1.12. Raw consumption

1.13. Contamination, obsolescence (fake mushroom poisoning)

2. Rare syndromes

2.1. Equestre syndrome

2.2. Pleurocybella Syndrome

2.3. Acromelalga Syndrome

2.4. Kidney toxic Amanite syndrome

2.5. Scleroderma Syndrome

2.6. Shiitake syndrome (flagellant dermatitis)

2.7. Polyporic Acid Syndrome, Hapalopilus Syndrome

2.8. Fungi suspected of being carcinogenic or mutagenic

2.9. Contamination of dried mushrooms

3. Exotic Syndromes

3.1. Yunnan sudden death syndrome

3.2. Russula subnigricans

4. Detection methods

5. Literature and sources

1. Common syndromes ▲

1.1. Phalloides syndrome, Amanitin syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Severe vomiting diarrhea, then apparent improvement, but the beginning of liver damage (jaundice) up to liver disintegration, blood clotting disorder, kidney failure

Latency: 8–12 hours (amplitude 4–36 hours)

Mushroom species: Green, spring and cone-capped death cap mushroom (Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. virosa), Poison hilts (Galerina marginata agg.), flesh pink poison umbrella (Lepiota subincarnata), Flesh-brown venomous umbrella (L. brunneoincarnata), Purple-brown sand umbrella (L. brunneolilacea), Maroon umbrella (L. castanea) ?. Small umbrella (Lepiota spp.) with brownish and red pigments are suspected of containing amatoxins.

In the Wrinkled Glockenschüppling (Conocybe filaris) Amanitin was detected in the USA. The German collections examined did not contain any Amanitin.

Poisons: Mainly amatoxins; Depending on the type, other toxins such as B. phallotoxins, virotoxins, hemolysins

Laboratory: Quick drop, increase in liver values, creatinine and bilirubin

Antidote: Silibinin (Legalon SIL ®)

Remarks: Evidence: ELISA test, Wieland test

1.2. Gyromitrin Syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Severe vomiting diarrhea, additional damage to the central nervous system (headache, seizures, impaired consciousness), liver and kidney damage, coma

Latency: 6–24 hours (amplitude 2–25 hours)

Mushroom species: Spring poison lobster (Gyromitra esculenta), Helmet circle (Cudonia circinans), Giant lobster (G. gigas), Bischofsmütze (G. infula)

Poisons: Gyromitrin, monomethylhydrazine (MMH, carcinogenic in animal experiments)

Laboratory: Myoglobin in the urine, increases in liver values, creatinine and urea

Antidote: High dose pyridoxine (Vit. B 6)

Remarks: According to the WHO (World Health Organization), Lorelels should generally be avoided.

1.3. Orellanus Syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Thirst, headache, dry mouth, kidney pain, failure to produce urine, acute kidney failure, i. d. Usually no gastrointestinal symptoms

Latency: Days, up to 3 weeks

Mushroom species: Orange-foxed Roughhead (Cortinarius orellanus), Pointed hunched rough head (C. rubellus, Syn.C. speciosissimus)

Suspicious: Black and green clubfoot (C. atrovirens), Orange-leaved cinnamon skin head (C. cinnamomeus), Fuchsia belt foot (C. brunneofulvus), Rhubarb-footed rocky head (C. callisteus), Golden yellow rough head (C. gentilis), Blood-leaved skin head (C. semisanguineus). All veils (Cortinariussp.) with yellow, orange, green and red pigments are suspected of being poisonous.

The bright yellow clubfoot (C. splendens) does not contain orellanin, but rather another substance that is toxic to the kidneys and has not yet been reliably identified.

Poisons: Orellanin, orellin

Laboratory: Increase in creatinine and urea

Remarks: Evidence: iron-III-chloride reaction according to PÖDER and MOSER: color change to violet; Kidney aspirate

1.4. Muscarinic Syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Cholinergic: sweats, salivation, tears, slowed pulse, narrow pupils, visual disturbances, acute diarrhea with vomiting

Latency: 15 minutes to 2 hours

Mushroom species: Brick red crack fungus (Inocybe erubescens), Earth-leaved crack fungus (I. geophylla), Conical crack fungus (I. rimosa), further crack fungi (Inocybe spp.), Feldtrichterling (Clitocybe dealbata), Rutty-tire funnel (C. rivulosa agg.), scent funnel (C. suaveolens agg., incl.C. fragrans), Wax stem funnel (C. candicans), more funnels (Clitocybe spp.), radish helmling (Mycena pura), Pink radish helmling (M. rosea)

Poisons: Muscarin

Antidote: Atropine

Remarks: Caution: Initially, panther and fly agaric poisoning (pantherina syndrome) can also be associated with cholinergic symptoms.

1.5. Pantherina Syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Anticholinergic effect: wide pupils (mydriasis), dry, warm skin, rapid pulse, high blood pressure, often alternating with cholinergic symptoms, not infrequently as an initial reaction or in the case of slight poisoning: pupils narrow (miosis), skin moist, cool, pulse slow, Blood pressure low, salivation.

Vomiting (rarely), hallucinations, convulsions not uncommon, coma, after a state of intoxication, final deep sleep

Latency: 15 minutes to 4 hours

Mushroom species: Panther mushroom (Amanita pantherina), Toadstool (A. muscaria), King fly mushroom (A. regalis), Daffodil yellow amanita (A. gemmata) Presumably toxin-free and toxin-containing breeds or when consuming larger amounts?

Poisons: Ibotenic acid, muscimol

Antidote: Physostigmine (Anticholium ®) only in the case of life-threatening poisoning

Remarks: In severe cases, the anticholinergic symptoms predominate.

1.6. Coprinus syndrome, acetaldehyde syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Sudden reddening of the skin on the face, neck, chest, feeling hot, sweat, dizziness, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat

Latency: Minutes to 1 hour

Mushroom species: Gray wrinkle ink (Coprinopsis atramentaria), Woodpecker (C. picaceus), Coprin in small amounts in other tintlings.

The spiky umbrella (Echinoderma asperum) contains an as yet unknown toxin.

Suspicious: Club-footed funnel (Ampulloclitocybe clavipes)

Poisons: Coprin, unknown poisons

Antidote: Fomepizole in life-threatening cases

Remarks: Symptoms of poisoning only in connection with alcohol up to 3 days before or after the meal.

1.7. Paxillus syndrome (immune hemolysis) ▲

Symptoms: Occurrence after repeated consumption, lighter symptoms with previous meals, no complaints from tablemates. Nausea, abdominal colic, vomiting diarrhea, collapse, pain in the upper abdomen, back and arms, shortness of breath, circulatory problems, extreme weakness, jaundice, dark urine, blood in the urine, kidney failure, acute kidney failure after 1–2 days, liver damage, lung failure

Latency: 15 minutes to 2 hours (after frequent mushroom meals up to years ago)

Mushroom species: Kahler Krempling (Paxillus involutus agg.)

Poisons: unknown antigen

Laboratory: free hemoglobin in plasma, haptoglobin drop

Remarks: Antigen-antibody reaction. Different types of Kremplings are systematically distinguished.

Due to a case described, the butter mushroom (Suillus luteus) come under suspicion.

Proof: Hemagglutination test according to LEFÈVRE

1.8. Psilocybin Syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Light-headedness, dizziness, restlessness, balance disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, madness, intoxication, hallucinations

Latency: 15 minutes to 4 hours

Mushroom species: Conical bald head (Psilocybe semilanceata), Blue bald head (P. cyanescens), Cuban Bald Head (P. cubensis), other types of bald head (Psilocybe spp.), crown trickling (Stropharia coronilla), Species of the genera fertilizers (Panaeolus spp.), a few crack fungi (Inocybe spp.), roof mushrooms (Pluteus spp.), scarfs (Gymnopilus spp.), cockles (Galerina spp.), tropical fertilizers (Copelandia spp.)

Poisons: Psilocybin, psilocin; other unknown substances

Remarks: Attention Narcotics Act! Flashbacks possible. The yellow cap mushroom (Amanita citrina) and the porphyry brown amanita (A. porphyria) contain bufotenin (psychoactive). However, the poison is eliminated in the gastrointestinal tract. Bufotenin is not subject to the BTMG; neither species is known to be used as an intoxicant. Gastrointestinal symptoms have been reported.

1.9. Neurological Morchella Syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Cerebellar and brain stem symptoms: tremors, dizziness, numbness, balance disorders, visual disturbances with narrow or wide pupils, restlessness, occasionally gastrointestinal symptoms after 5 hours.

Latency: ± 12 hours

Mushroom species: all morel species (Morchella spp.), Bohemian Verpel (Verpa bohemica)

Poisons: unknown heat stable neurotoxin

Remarks: Symptoms after eating a copious meal of prepared, fresh morels. Symptoms resolve within 1–72 hours, usually after 12 hours

1.10. Gastrointestinal Syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

Latency: 15 minutes to 4 hours

Mushroom species: Carboleggerling (Agaricus xanthoderma), Speitäubling (Russula emetica agg.), breakage exciter (Lactarius helvus), Red-brown milkling (L. rufus), Birch charm (L. torminosus), Giant red bloom (Entoloma lividum, Syn. E. sinuatum), Tiger Knight (Tricholoma pardinum), Schönfußröhrling (Caloboletus calopus), Satan's bolete (Boletus satanas), Spindeliger Rübling (Gymnopus fusipes), Bellyache coral (Ramaria mairei), Green-leaved sulfur head (Hypholoma fasciculare), Conical sapling (Hygrocybe conica), Falsels (Lever oma spp.), Potato Boviste (Scleroderma spp.) and other species from different genera, Kahler Krempling (Paxillus involutus) - to distinguish it from Paxillus syndrome.

Poisons: various, e.g. T. unknown toxins

Remarks: Danger! Short latencies do not preclude severe poisoning with long latency types.

At the thick-skinned potato bovist (Scleroderma citrinum) there are also isolated case descriptions of massive visual disturbances, loss of color vision, double vision, temporary blindness.

1.11. Omphalotus Syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, lasting 1–5 (–7) days, sweating and headache possible, in some cases reduced blood pressure and heart rate described, very rarely neurological symptoms

Latency: ½ to 4 hours

Mushroom species: Dark olive funnel (Omphalotus olearius), Luminous Olive Tree Mushroom (O. illudens)

Poisons: Illudin S (a sesquiterpene)

1.12. Raw consumption ▲

First symptoms: Nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea

Latency: 15 minutes to 24 hours

Mushroom species: z. B. Kahler Krempling (Paxillus involutus), Honey mushroom (Armillaria mellea agg.), pearl mushroom (Amanita rubescens), Giant umbrellas (Macrolepiota spp.)

Many types of mushrooms - including those that are considered edible mushrooms when cooked - are poisonous when eaten raw. Your heat-labile toxins are only rendered harmless by thorough heating (boiling or frying for 15 minutes). Some of them have a haemolytic and / or agglutinating effect when consumed raw.

1.13. Contamination, aging (fake mushroom poisoning) ▲

Fungi can accumulate heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury) and radioactive substances (cesium-137, strontium-90). Fungi, especially from road and field edges or industrial areas, can be contaminated by fertilizers, pesticides or heavy metals. The crown cup (Sarcosphaera coronaria) arsenic accumulates in large amounts. Chanterelles in stores were contaminated with the insecticide DEET, boletus mushrooms in stores with nicotine; the BfR considers the quantities determined to be harmless to health. In cultivated mushrooms, pesticides have even been detected as multiple residues. The BfR warned against salmonella in dried mushrooms.

It is assumed that fungi on yew wood or needles in the litter layer can absorb toxins from the yew (cases of poisoning known in sulfur pores [Laetiporus sulphureus] and boletus [Boletus edulis]).

In oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) and velvet foot carrots (Flamulina velutipes), the golden rain (Laburnum) grew, no alkaloids could be detected. Another problem is the often uncritical attitude of consumers towards the rapid aging and rot of mushrooms. Mushrooms that are already rotten, moldy, and have an unpleasant smell must not be consumed.

In some regions of Germany, especially southern and eastern Bavaria, z. B. chestnut boletus, bread stubble mushrooms, birch mushrooms and cow boletus still significantly 137Cs and 90Sr burdened. (see radioactivity in mushrooms).

2. Rare syndromes ▲

2.1. Equestre syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Rhabdomyolysis (muscle breakdown) with tiredness, muscle weakness, muscle pain, brown urine, up to and including kidney failure

Latency: 24-72 hours

Mushroom species: Green compact (Tricholoma equestre agg.), under suspicion also the common earth knight (T. terreum)

Poisons: Green compact: unknown myolysin; Common earth knight: Saponaceolide B and M

Laboratory: Myoglobin in the urine, massive CK increase, only applies to the green body (T. equestre), not for the earth knight (T. terreum)

Remarks: So far, deaths after eating green compacts have only been known from large and repeated meals on 2–3 consecutive days.

Cases of poisoning with T. terreum are currently unknown.

2.2. Pleurocybella Syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Weakness, tremor, confusion, epileptic seizures, coma, stroke-like symptoms, no early gastrointestinal symptoms

Latency: Days to weeks (1–31 days)

Mushroom species: Ear spoon oyster mushroom, ear-shaped white oyster mushroom (Pleurocybella porrigens)

Poisons: Pleurocybellaziridine

Remarks: The fungus is widespread in Germany in the higher low mountain ranges. So far, however, poisoning is only known from Japan in patients with pre-existing kidney damage.

2.3. Acromelalga Syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Burning, severe pain and overheating, swelling and reddening or even darkening of the extremities, recurring, lasting for weeks

Latency: 1-2 (-7) days

Mushroom species: Perfumed funnel (Clitocybe amoenolens, Syn. Paralepistopsis a.), Bamboo funnel (Clitocybe acromelalga, Syn. Paralepistopsis a.)

Poisons: Acromelic acid

Remarks: Japanese-style syndrome name Clitocybe acromelalga. Pain can hardly be influenced even by strong painkillers; Cold relieves pain. Movement and warmth increase the pain.

2.4. Kidney-toxic Amanite syndrome (in Flammer [2014] "Proxima syndrome") ▲

Symptoms: Nausea, violent vomiting diarrhea with prolonged vomiting, reversible kidney failure beginning after 1 ½ – 3 days and lasting up to 4 weeks

Latency: 6-11 (-13) hours

Mushroom species: Ocher ring eggplant (Amanita proxima), Spiky amanita (A. echinocephala), Delicate Amanita (A. gracilior), Maritime pine amanita (A. boudieri)

Poisons:A. gracilior, A. boudieri, A. echinocephala contain the same toxin as the North American, toxic A. smithiana, which is (an) amine-containing substance (s). The exact structure is currently unclear.

The toxins of A. proxima are completely unknown - before enjoying the species complex A. ovoidea/A. proxima is warned.

Laboratory: Discreet increase in liver values ​​possible

Remarks: Danger! Kidney failure is not necessarily due to orellanin-containing fungi!

2.5. Scleroderma Syndrome ▲

Symptoms: repeated violent vomiting and nausea, less often diarrhea. Frequently additional CNS symptoms: dizziness, headache, visual disturbances possible (blurred vision up to reversible blindness or color vision disturbances), in some cases lower blood pressure and heart rate, possibly collapse, as well as a drop in body temperature.

Latency: (20-) 30 minutes - 1.2 (-5) hours

Mushroom species: probably all Scleroderma-Species
Proven: S. citrinum, S. areolatum, S. cepa, S. verrucosum, S. polyrhizum

Poisons: unknown

2.6. Shiitake syndrome (flagellant dermatitis) ▲

Symptoms: Lash-like painful skin irritation, mainly on the back. Symptoms mostly only with mushrooms consumed raw or semi-raw.

Latency: several hours up to 2 (-5) days

Mushroom species: Shiitake (Lentinula edodes)

Poisons: Lentinan

Remarks: Few cases known, healing up to 38 days

2.7. Polyporic Acid Syndrome, Hapalopilus Syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Violet urine, vomiting, visual disturbances, ataxia (unsteady gait), acute kidney failure, impaired nerve, liver and kidney function

Latency: approx. 12 hours

Mushroom species: Cinnamon-colored soft pork (Hapalopilus nidulans)

Poisons: Polyporic acid

Remarks: Only a few cases are known in Germany. Violet KOH reaction on the fruiting body, cooking water turns pink to violet.

2.8. Fungi suspected of being carcinogenic or mutagenic ▲

Symptoms: not known

Types of mushrooms and poisons:
White Rasling (Lyophyllum connatum) - Lyophylline and Connatin
Fog cap (Clitocybe nebularis) - Nebularin
Olive brown milkling (Lactarius turpis) - Necatoron
Poison lory (Gyromitra esculenta) - Gyromitrin

2.9. Contamination from dried mushrooms ▲
due to plant remains from the arum family (Araceae), Dieffenbachia-Type (welding pipe)

Symptoms: Immediate, severe burning sensation in the mouth, esophagus, stomach, severe difficulty swallowing, swelling of the mucous membranes, massive salivation

Latency: Right away

Types of mushrooms / triggers: Plant remains in dried porcini mushrooms. Microscopic needles as carriers of soluble oxalates

Remarks: Dried porcini mushrooms (possibly other dried mushrooms), declared as dry goods from a European country - however, the country of origin was China. About> 12 cases are known in Switzerland.

3. Exotic Syndromes ▲

3.1. Yunnan sudden death syndrome ▲

Symptoms: Nausea, dizziness, racing heart, states of exhaustion, in 50% of patients vomiting, diarrhea, acute cardiac death

Latency: > 6 hours?

Mushroom species:Trogia venenata

Poisons: 2-amino-4-hydroxy-hexynoic acid, 2-amino-hexynoic acid, gamma-guanidine butyric acid

Remarks: Southwest China

3.2. Russula subnigricans

Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rhabdomyolysis (breakdown of the striated muscles), brown urine, possibly kidney failure

Latency: 30 minutes to 2 hours

Mushroom species:Russula subnigricans

Poisons: Cyclo-2-propene-carboxylic acid

Laboratory: excessive increase in CK, myoglobin in urine

Remarks: Asia, North America. Known in Japan since the 1950s.

7 documented deaths

4. Detection methods ▲

  • Newsprint test according to WIELAND - an indication of the amatoxin content in mushrooms
  • ELISA test - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Amanitin in urine or blood
  • Orellanin test - detection of orellanin and orellin in case of poisoning by Cortinarius orellanus or C. rubellus: Test according to PÖDER and MOSER on fresh or dried mushrooms (ferric chloride solution) as well as detection of poison in kidney aspirates
  • Hemagglutination test according to LEFÈVRE - evidence of immune hemolysis in Paxillus syndrome

5. Literature and sources ▲

  • BEDRY, R., I. BAUDRIMONT, G. DEFFIEUX, EE CREPPY, JP POMIES, JM RAGNAUD, M. DUPON, D. NEAU, C. GABINSKI, S. DE WITTE, JC CHAPALAIN, J. BEYLOT, P. GODEAU ( 2001): Wild-Mushroom Intoxication as a Cause of Rhabdomyolysis. New England Journal of Medicine 345 (11): 798-802. (DOI: 10.1056 / NEJMoa010581)
  • BfR - Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (2002): Be careful when using dried mushrooms! BfR press release 06/2002. (Online, accessed 11.11.2016)
  • BfR - Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (2009): DEET residues in chanterelles from Eastern Europe are not a health risk. BfR Opinion No. 034/2009. (Online, accessed 11.11.2016)
  • BfR - Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (2009): Nicotine in dried porcini mushrooms: the cause of the contamination must be clarified. BfR Opinion No. 009/2009. (Online, accessed 11.11.2016)
  • BIAGI, M. (2014): Investigations into Amanita ovoidea (Bull.) Link .: Edible or Poisonous? Natural Resources 25 (3): 225-232. (DOI: 10.4236 / no.2014.56021)
  • BRESINSKY, A. & H. BESL (1985): Toadstool Mushrooms - A Handbook for Pharmacists, Doctors, and Biologists. Stuttgart: 295 pp.
  • DGfM - German Society for Mycology (2014): List of poison mushrooms. Advisory Board for Mushroom Utilization and Toxicology. (see box "Documents", accessed: November 23, 2016)
  • FLAMMER, R. & E. HORAK (2003): Poison mushrooms - mushroom poisons. Basel: 204 pp.
  • FLAMMER, R. (2014): Toadstools. Aarau and Munich. 320 pp.
  • FLAMMER, T. (2016): Medicine and Mycology - Detection Methods. July 20, 2016: 3 pp. (PDF online, accessed: November 11, 2016)
  • HABERL B., EBBECKE M., ECKART D., ENGEL A., PLENERT B., SCHENK-JÄGER K., SULZE G., PFAB R. (2018): Neurological symptoms after consumption of earthballs (Scleroderma species): a retrospective case series. Clinical Toxicology, Vol. 56, No. 6. 574

  • KIRCHMAIR, M., P. Carrilho, R. Pfab, B. Haberl, J. Felgueiras, F. Carvalho, J. Cardoso, I. Melo, J. Vinhas, S. Neuhauser (2011): Amanita poisonings resulting in acute, reversible renal failure: new cases, new toxic Amanita mushrooms. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2011) 0: 1-7. (DOI: 10.1093 / ndt / gfr511)
  • LINDEQUIST, U. (2012): Analysis of alkaloids in Pleurotus ostreatus and Flammulina velutipeswho are in the laburnum (Laburnum) had grown. Written Communication from H. Kreisel to H. Andersson. 05/07/2012.
  • LIZON, P. (1982): Mushroom poisoning by Omphalotus olearius and distribution of the fungus in Slovakia. Ceska Mykologie 36: 154-159
  • MARETIĆ, Z., F. E. RUSSELL, V. GOLOBIĆ (1975): Twenty-five cases of poisoning by the mushroom Pleurotus olearius. Toxicon 13: 379-381 (DOI: 10.1016 / 0041-0101 (75) 90201-9)
  • MATSUURA, M., Y. SAIKAWA, K. INUI, K. NAKAE, M. IGARASHI, K. HASHIMOTO, M. NAKATA (2009): Identification of the toxic trigger in mushroom poisoning. Nature Chemical Biology 5: 465-467 (DOI: 10.1038 / nchembio.179)
  • NEUBERT, H. (1978): Poisoning by the olive tree funnel. Southwest German Mushroom Review 2:20 pm.
  • Portal for Organic Chemistry (2009): Cylcoprop-2-ene carboxylic acid from mushrooms is highly toxic. (Online, accessed: November 11, 2016)
  • ROTH, L., H. FRANK, K. KORMANN (1990): Poison mushrooms - mushroom poisons. Molds, mycotoxins. Hamburg. 328 pp.
  • SAVIUC, P. & V. Danel (2006): New syndromes in mushroom poisoning. Toxicological Reviews 25 (3): 199-209. (DOI: 10.2165 / 00139709-200625030-00004)
  • SEEGER, R. & R. WIEDMANN (1972): On the occurrence of hemolysins and agglutinins in higher fungi (Basidiomycetes). Archives for Toxicology 29 (3): 189–217 (DOI: 10.1007 / BF00315599)
  • STAMETS, P. (1999): Psilocybin Mushrooms in the World. Aarau (Switzerland). 246 pp.
  • STIJVE, T. (2012): Le poison de Sarcosphaera coronaria. AEMBA - Le Bulletin 53: 10-19.
  • WAUSCHKUHN, C. (2009): Residues of pesticides in mushrooms and mushroom products in the research year 2009. Chemical and Veterinary Investigation Office (CVUA), Stuttgart. (Online, accessed: November 11, 2016)
  • YIN, X., T. FENG, J.-H. SHANG, Y.-L. ZHAO, F. WANG, Z.-H. LI, Z.-J. DONG, X.-D. LUO, J.-K. LIU (2014): Chemical and Toxicological Investigations of a Previously Unknown Poisonous European Mushroom Tricholoma terreum. Chemistry 20 (23): 7001-7009. (DOI: 10.1002 / chem. 201400226)
  • ZHOU, Z.-Y., G.-Q. SHI, R. FONTAINE, K. WEI, T. FENG, F. WANG, G.-Q. WANG, Y. QU, Z.-H. LI, Z.-J. DONG, H.-J. ZHU, Z.-L. YANG, G. ZENG, J.-K. LIU (2012): Evidence for the Natural Toxins from the Mushroom Trogia venenata as a Cause of Sudden Unexpected Death in Yunnan Province, China. Angewandte Chemie 51 (10): 2368-2370. (DOI: 10.1002 / anie.201106502)