What is the chemical symbol for Lawrencium


Lawrencium - chemical symbol Lr, atomic number 103 - is a short-lived, radioactive, only artificially accessible, metallic, chemical element from the group of actinides (Transuran element).

Lawrencium is an unstable element synthesized for the first time in 1961 by bombarding californium with boron atoms, which has no significance for nature or technical application.

Due to the short life and the high technical effort involved in the production of Lawrencium, very little is known about its chemical and physical properties.


Overview: General data on the Lawrencium


The Lr atom - and thus the chemical element Lawrencium - is clearly defined by the 103 positively charged protons in the atomic nucleus. The same number of electrons ensures the electrical balance in the uncharged Lawrencium atom.

The nuclear building blocks of the neutrons ensure that there are differences between the atomic nuclei. These types of atoms are grouped under the term Lawrencium isotopes or Lawrencium nuclides (isotope data: see there).


Electron configuration

Electron configuration of Lawrencium in the uncharged ground state:

symbolOZshort form1s2s2p3s3p3d4s4p4d4f5s5p5d5f6s6p6d6f7s7p
Lr103[Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p122626102610142610142621


It has been discussed for some time whether the valence electrons are 7s2 6d1- or by a 7s2 7p1/21-Configuration is. More recent experimental and theoretical considerations currently support the second variant [cf. Xuab and Pyykkö, 2016].


Ionization energies

The following table lists the binding energies or the ionization energies IE of Lawrencium, i.e. the required energy in electron volts (eV) to separate a certain electron from an Lr atom.

The first ionization energy of Lawrencium was determined experimentally for the first time in 2015 (see below).

1. IE: 4.96 eV2. IE: 14 eV3. IE: 21 eV4. IE: eV5. IE: eV6. IE: eV


Electron binding energy

The following table lists the electron binding energies of the individual Lawrencium electrons in the respective orbitals. The values ​​are given in electron volts (eV).











Further data


Chemical data


Standard potentials

Normal potential of the Lawrencium:

E.0 (V)NoxName Ox.Ox.e-Red.Name Red.Nox
-1,96+ IIILawrencium (III) cationLr3++ 3 e-Lr (s)lawrencium0


Material and physical properties of the Lawrencium

The following table lists some physical data and material properties of pure Lawrencium.



[1] - Albert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon E. Larsh, Robert M. Latimer:
New Element, Lawrencium, Atomic Number 103.
In: Physical Review Letters, 1961, DOI 10.1103 / PhysRevLett.6.473.

[2] - Kari Eskola, Pirkko Eskola, Matti Nurmia, Albert Ghiorso:
Studies of Lawrencium Isotopes with Mass Numbers 255 Through 260.
In: Physical Review C., 1971, DOI 10.1103 / PhysRevC.4.632.

[3] - L. J. Nugent et al .:
Electronic configuration in the ground state of atomic lawrencium.
In: Physical Review A., 1974, DOI 10.1103 / PhysRevA.9.2270.

[4] - Ephraim Eliav et al .:
Transition energies of ytterbium, lutetium, and lawrencium by the relativistic coupled-cluster method.
In: Physical Review A., 1995, DOI 10.1103 / PhysRevA.52.291.

[5] - Yu Zou, C. Froese Fischer:
Resonance Transition Energies and Oscillator Strengths in Lutetium and Lawrencium.
In: Physical Review Letters, 2002, DOI 10.1103 / PhysRevLett.88.183001.

[6] - Robert J. Silva:
Fermium, Mendelevium, Nobelium, and Lawrencium.
In: The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements, 2006, DOI 10.1007 / 1-4020-3598-5_13.

[7] - A. Borschevsky et al .:
Transition energies of atomic lawrencium.
In: EPJD, 2007, DOI 10.1140 / epjd / e2007-00130-9.

[8] - Andreas Türler:
Lawrencium bridges a knowledge gap.
In: Nature, 2015, DOI 10.1038 / 520166a.

[9] - NN:
Lawrencium: First ionization potential determined.
In: Internet chemistry news, 2015.

[10] - Wen-Hua Xuab, Pekka Pyykkö:
Is the chemistry of lawrencium peculiar?.
In: PCCP - Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2016, DOI 10.1039 / C6CP02706G, open access.


Category: Chemical elements

Updated on 26.02.2020.

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