Which specialization course you should choose after PGDM


What is there to learn here?

ATTENTION: If you have no experience of navigating with instruments, you should fly the Salzburg airfield tour first!

1. Make settings:

Select aircraft (Boeing 737), select airfield (Munich), set the weather and set the navigation devices:
Attention: as we are standing on the ground, we have no reception at the VOR stations. That changes immediately after the start.
NAV1: 117.0 (Mühldorf), OBS course: 120
NAV2: 113.8 (Salzburg)
ADF: 382 (Salzburg)

2. Set the autopilot (AP):

FS98:
Aircraft - Autopilot select ... there set according to the graphic (with the FS2k everything stayed the same - except for the layout):
Autopilot active:
Only then does the AP start to work.
Now only the most important switches:
HDG:
AP flies the set course.
OLD
Keeping altitude is clear. If the vertical speed is also specified, the AP tries to reach the set height with the specified rate of climb. Of course, this is also possible for the descent. We set 6000ft.
ASH
Maintain set speed in knots.
AAT
If this is specified together with ASH, the AP controls the thrust fully automatically.


 

 

 


FS2k / FS2k2:
In most cases, the autopilot can ONLY MORE DIRECTLY (with the mouse) be set on the PANEL.

These values ​​can also be set directly in the cockpit with the mouse. Set 190 here.

Autopilot cockpit display


(B737 in FS2k):

B747 in the FS2k2

Hold the mouse pointer on a switch - the direct help shows the meaning of the switch.
If you now go to the corresponding numerical value, the mouse pointer gets a + or a -. With it you can increase and decrease the number.
AP labeling in the cockpit:

NAV / GPSSwitch from radio navigation to GPS navigation
F / DFlight director
ATautomatic thrust control (necessary for IAS and MACH)
A / PAutopilot master switch (the Z key on the keyboard)
Show
COURSEactual course to be flown. The CDI needle of the NAV1 device is set with Course
HDGDirection of the tip of the aircraft (can be different from the course in cross winds)
IAS / MACHtoo flying speed
ALTITUDEto fly altitude
VERT.SPEED+ is the rate of climb, - is the rate of descent in ft / min
counter
NAVFlies on the set COURSE towards the VOR that is set in NAV1
HDGThe aircraft nose is aligned with the HDG direction (course heading)
APRfully automatic landing approach with the ILS system
IASMaintain speed in kt (IAS).
MACHKeep the speed up
OLDMaintain wing height
BCflies the set course the wrong way (hold opposite course)
LVLMaintain horizontal flight attitude (e.g. inclination when turning)
Y / DGierdämper (longitudinal axis stabilizer)

Flight director
Helps to manually fly the values ​​that are set in the autopilot.
Use flight director:
AP main switch OFF
Flight Director ON
Set the desired value in the AP:
E.g. set HDG 110 degrees and switch on the HDG button.
A crosshair (2 independent bars) appears in the AI, which should be centered in the middle. If this succeeds, they will fly just like the AP would !!!!


So now, after (everything!?) Is set, switch the
A / P off again for the time being (lever to OFF).

3. Starting with the B737:

Fold to 10 ° (press F7 4 times). (With full tanks at 15 °)
The Set thrust to 96%, then with
. (Period) loosen the Brensen.
They start at around 140kt rotate i.e. pull the joystick slowly. Hold the Nose about 15 degrees high. As soon as they see a positive rate of climb, they can Retract the landing gear (with button G).

Now at about 1000ft above the airfield Activate autopilot by clicking on AP. Activate automatic thrust control (A / T) Set IAS to 250 kt.
The B737 now flies by itself. Don't forget to set the height to 6000ft.
After a climb of approx. 2000 ft you can reduce the vertical speed to 2000 ft / min.

But watch the instruments closely. The VOR displays are now active.
Make the one you want Altitude at 6000ft a. Try using the mouse directly in the cockpit. Watch throttle, rate of climb, etc.
From 180 kt, retract flaps one by one - depending on the speed (with F6)
Completely retract flaps with 210 to 220 kt (with F5)

4. Swing in on the desired course:

Since we didn't leave everything to the autopilot, we have to steer onto the right course ourselves.
Notice when the pointer on the NAV1 display begins to move towards the center. Around 18 NM before VOR-1 (Mühldorf).
Now start slowly and carefully to turn to the desired course number 120. You should reach them when the yellow pointer reaches the center. Only then are they perfectly on course.
Check the throttle when you reach 6000 ft. The thrust control shows how it should be.
By the way: NAV2 - green pointer (ADF display) points exactly to Salzburg. It's right in front of us.
The VOR station in Salzburg is a little to the left of the airfield (as seen from us).
Have you seen how the autopilot now flies horizontally at 6000 m. Nice what?

5. Fly over a VOR station:

Look at the distance display on NAV1. We are approaching the station. A good opportunity to take a closer look at the NAV display:

During the approach (1.3 NM according to the graphic) a GRAY ARROW points in the direction of flight (120 degrees). That means we are heading towards the VOR.
(I have compressed the graphic heavily - loading time!, So unfortunately the distance information is difficult to read :-(



After the overflight (immediately recognizable by the increasing distance) the GRAY ARROW points (to "back"). That means the VOR station is behind us.

6.ILS (NAV1) - set device - start descent:

After the overflight Fly exactly towards the VOR-2 station (yellow arrow in NAV-2). About a course of 110 degrees.
Then set the ILS frequency for the approach to Salzburg in NAV-1.
NAV1: 109.9 OBS course: 156
That means the runway is in the direction of 156 degrees (is abbreviated as RWY 16). If we approach with this course, the runway is exactly in the course direction. That's the way it should be.
Well the Reduce the autopilot speed to 200 kt.

Suggestion: save the flight now so that you can try the ILS approach more often.

The ILS display in the course indicator shows that we would have to fly to the left to get onto the ILS glide slope (course 156). However, since we are flying a course of around 110 to 120, you only need to continue flying straight until we get onto the glide slope.
The graphic shows the position of the aircraft and the VOR (ILS) display. More about the ILS!

TIP: If you cannot cope with the approach, you can leave the approach to the autopilot ...


7.ILS approach with autopilot (fully automatic approach):

If you do not want to land fully automatically, go to point 8 immediately!
Switch on APR (ILS approach). That is enough!!! (For manual landing with ILS, see terms / explanations)
Make sure that SPD (with thrust control) is switched on.
Immediately in front of the RWY switch off the AP using the Z key
At a distance of approx. 18 NM from Salzburg, the autopilot swings into the approach course (when the ILS needle begins to move).
Nice to see how the autopilot always oversteers over the approach course at the beginning. It is better to go on course yourself and only leave the automatic system to hold the course. It can do better.
When the correct glide angle is reached (yellow o in the middle +), then with
Set IAS (Speed) to 170 kt and at approx. 220 kt (with F7 once) set the flap to 1 °.
From 190 kt flaps continue to extend piece by piece.

At 4000 ft, set flaps to 20 ° (F7) and speed to 160 kt.
Extend the landing gear at 3800 ft (G).
The final approach begins at the OuterMarker (horn signal and blue lamp on the left of the cockpit).
Set flaps to full with F8 and speed to 140kt.
The autopilot brings you straight to the runway. At the beginning of the runway, the throttle even goes to idle.
Switch off the autopilot in front of the RWY with the "Z" key .

Put on
Normally the AP should be switched off immediately before the RWY. All you need is that
Lift your nose very slightly, (pitch between 3 ° and 8 °) release the gas a little and wait until the B737 touches down -
Counter thrust (hold F2), extend spoiler
Under 60 kt throttle to idle, spoiler in, but now brake
. OK
If you have observed the autopilot closely, you can try a semi-manual landing right away - many attempts later a fully manual landing - even more attempts later with wind, thunderstorms, ...

8. Approach and landing with autopilot assistance

The instruments are set as in point 5 (Setting the ILS devices). Do not carry out point 7. The ILS display in the course indicator shows that we are still too deep ("yellow Ringerl "o right in the display, is at the top). We should go up. But since we (hopefully) fly horizontally, it is only a matter of time before we get into the sloping glide path (see ILS approach)
The graphic shows the ILS display shortly after the VOR overflight in Mühldorf. Attention: approx. 20 NM before Salzburg:
Set IAS (speed) on the autopilot to 200 Kt
As soon as the VOR needle starts moving, use the
Swing into the correct course (156 °) start.

The correct height has now been reached (mark exactly at the middle
+ Sign), so
Set the flaps to 5 °,
Set the height (ALT) of the AP to zero,
then at VS of the AP to -1000 walk.

9. Final approach with semi-automatic

(Autopilot controls thrust, maintains sink rate)
Summary of the characteristics of the approach:

Flaps in degreesapprox thrust N1
Sink rate ft / min
20
200 kt
5
60%
-1000
15
180 kt
10
58%
-1000
10
160 kt
30
55%
-800
7
Running gear
   
3
150 kt
Full
53%
-750

And always stay on course, keep the sink angle (thank God the autopilot regulates the thrust, because I don't have more eyes and hands).

The final approach begins at the OuterMarker (horn signal and blue lamp on the left of the cockpit).
Set flaps to full with F8 and speed to 140kt.
The autopilot brings you straight to the runway. At the beginning of the runway, the throttle even goes to idle.
Then switch off the autopilot IMMEDIATELY with the "Z" key. Normally the AP should be switched off at the MM (middle marker). All you need is that
Lift your nose very slightly, (pitch between 5 and 10 °) a little gas and wait until the B737 touches down -
Counter-thrust (hold F2), extend spoiler
Under 60kt throttle to idle, spoiler in, but now brake.
If you touch down right in the middle of the runway, you are better than me :-) !!!
Unless! You have saved the approach. Let's go. Once again....