What is the conclusion in Malayalam newspapers

Instructions | Quote from MLA

The MLA style is one of the most widely used citation styles. The 8th edition of the citation rules according to MLA was published in 2016 by the Modern Language Association (MLA).

This guide will help you understand and apply the basic citation guidelines and MLA formatting requirements.

To quote according to MLA you will need:

  1. References in the text that are in the running text of your scientific work. These consist of the author's last name and the page number.
  2. a bibliography at the end of your academic paper. In this you list all sources used in full.

References in the text to MLA

With a reference in the text you refer your readership to the full reference in the bibliography.

According to MLA, the reference in the text is directly in the body of your scientific work. You place a reference in the text when you quote or paraphrase another source.

Direct quotations are marked with quotation marks ("...").

According to MLA, you always give that Last name of the authorship as well as the Page number at.

The reference in the text can look different:

Both examples show the readership on which page in Müller's work they can find the quote.

Here you can see an overview of references in the text with various information:

Overview: References in the text with various information
1 authorInclude the author's last name.(Müller 23)
2 authorsInclude the last names of both authors.(Müller and Neuer 23)
3+ authorsGive the last name of the first author, followed by 'et al.' (= And others).(Müller et al. 23)
Organization as an authorName the organization as the author.(Microsoft 50)
Not an authorInclude the title (or the abbreviated version).("Correctly substantiate sources ..." 48)
Several works by one authorInclude the title (or the abbreviated version) after the author's name.(Müller "Create source references" 12)
Authors with the same nameAdd the first letters of the authors to the surname.(T. Müller 23)
(M. Müller 48)
Multiple sources in one referenceWrite the sources separated by semicolons.(Müller 23; Neuer 35; Robben 50)

Missing page numbers

Sometimes sources don't have page numbers. If your source is broken down by numbered systems (e.g., chapters or paragraphs), cite them instead.

In the case of audiovisual sources (e.g. films, podcasts or YouTube videos), please provide the exact times.

If there are no numbered systems in your source (e.g. on websites), you only mention the surname of the author in your reference in the text.

MLA style bibliography

Every source that you cite in the text of your scientific work must be listed in full in the bibliography. In this way, the readership can find the sources you have used.

The full list of sources according to MLA consists of 9 elements:

You can use this format to create references for various types of sources (e.g. books, magazines, websites). Which information you use in your reference depends on the type of source.

Cite books


This example shows the citation for a book with one author. If other contributors (e.g. editors or translators) are known, please include them in your source.

Quoting chapters from anthologies


The title of the chapter is in quotation marks after the author. The editor and the title of the anthology follow. The anthology is the medium in which the chapter was published and is therefore written in italics.

If available, state the respective edition as well as the publisher and the page range of the chapter.

To quote an article from a magazine


Include the title of the quoted article as the title in your citation. Then give the name of the magazine in which the article was published.

Journals are usually divided into years and numbers. You indicate this in your source, separated by a point.

If the article was accessed through a database (JSTOR), enter this followed by the URL or the DOI.

Quote internet sources


The article about new discoveries on citation is part of the website 'Die Welt'. In the case of internet sources, you must always state the publication date and the URL.

Quote films


If you want to quote a movie, put the title in italics first. This is followed by all other specified contributors to the film (director, actor, producer), the production company and the year of publication.

The 9 elements of references according to MLA

According to the MLA, references in the bibliography consist of 9 elements. You can use these as a guide to create complete MLA-style citations.

1st author

Each reference begins with the last name of the authorship. In the case of the first author, the surname is always written first and separated from the first name by a comma. Title and name additions such as 'Dr.' or 'Prof.' do not have to be given.

If a source does not have an author, the citation begins with the title of the source. According to the author, there is always a point after the MLA. Example: Müller, Thomas.

Multiple authors
In the case of sources with two authors, both names are given. The first and last name of the second author are given in the normal order. There is no comma between the first and last name. Example: Müller, Thomas and Manuel Neuer.

Sources with 3 or more authors are given in abbreviated form. Just give the name of the first author followed by 'et al.' (= And others). Example: Müller, Thomas et al.

Organization as an author
If the source was published by an organization, you state them as the author. Example: Microsoft.

Not an author
If no author is given for the source, state the source's title instead.

Larger independently published works are written in italics (e.g. books, complete websites, films). Example: Quote correctly.

Smaller works that have been published in another source are placed in quotation marks (e.g. articles from journals or chapters from anthologies). Example: "Write a conclusion for your bachelor thesis."

2. Source title

The title of the cited source is the second element in the citation.

Include the full title of a source including the subtitle. The subtitle is separated from the title by a colon (': ‘).

Titles can be in italics or in quotation marks:

  • italicif it is a self-published source (e.g. an entire book, movie, or website).
  • in quotesif the source was published in a larger work (e.g. an article from a magazine or website).

3. Title of the medium

The medium is the larger work in which your source was published (e.g. a chapter in an anthology or an article from a magazine). The title of the medium is always written in italics.

Not all sources are part of a larger source, e.g. B. Books or websites.

4. Other contributors

In addition to authorship, there may be other contributors to a source, e.g. B. Translator or Illustrator.