How are mass and density connected?

Body characteristics¶

State of aggregation¶

Since objects consist of chemical substances and these can occur in solid, liquid and gaseous aggregate states, a distinction is made accordingly between solids, liquids and gases.

Depending on the state of aggregation, objects show different volume and shape behavior:

  • In the solid state, the atoms of a substance are firmly bound to their places in crystal lattices or macro-molecules and can only oscillate around their respective position.
  • In the liquid state, the individual atoms or molecules can move freely within the liquid. However, the exit from the liquid is made more difficult by intermolecular forces.
  • In the gaseous state, intermolecular forces play almost no role; the atoms or molecules can move freely.
Physical stateFirmlyLiquidGaseous
Typical examplemetalwaterair
volumeCertainlyCertainlyAdapted to the vessel volume
shapeCertainlyCertainlyAdapted to the shape of the vessel
Distance between particlesSmallSmallVery large
Displaceability of the particlesSmallLargeVery large
CompressibilityVery littleVery littleVery large

The physical state of a material depends on the pressure and temperature; This is discussed in more detail in the phase transitions section.