How are mass and density connected?
State of aggregation¶
Since objects consist of chemical substances and these can occur in solid, liquid and gaseous aggregate states, a distinction is made accordingly between solids, liquids and gases.
Depending on the state of aggregation, objects show different volume and shape behavior:
- In the solid state, the atoms of a substance are firmly bound to their places in crystal lattices or macro-molecules and can only oscillate around their respective position.
- In the liquid state, the individual atoms or molecules can move freely within the liquid. However, the exit from the liquid is made more difficult by intermolecular forces.
- In the gaseous state, intermolecular forces play almost no role; the atoms or molecules can move freely.
|volume||Certainly||Certainly||Adapted to the vessel volume|
|shape||Certainly||Certainly||Adapted to the shape of the vessel|
|Distance between particles||Small||Small||Very large|
|Displaceability of the particles||Small||Large||Very large|
|Compressibility||Very little||Very little||Very large|
The physical state of a material depends on the pressure and temperature; This is discussed in more detail in the phase transitions section.
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