What is a mixture of impure substances


before performing the prayer, inter alia religious acts should be eliminated in order for them to be valid. You become unclean by touching unclean things, such as forbidden food (dietary laws), wine (alcohol), animal and human excrement, but also pigs and, in some schools of law, dogs. After contamination, the body and clothing must be cleaned thoroughly. There are also two types of ritual U. of humans. The small U. (Arabic ḥadath) is caused by sleep, unconsciousness, the excretion of various body substances, but in the case of men also by touching the skin of a woman who is not closely related to him. This U. is removed by the small washing (Arabic wuḍūʾ) of the face, hands and forearms as well as the damp wiping of hair and feet. The capital U. (Arabic: janāba) occurs during male ejaculation and menstruation, as well as within forty days of childbirth. It is eliminated by washing the whole body (Arabic ghusl). In addition to these necessary ablutions, a number of ritual ablutions are pious custom, such as the whole body washing before the Friday prayer (bath). However, these are practiced to a much lesser extent. Apart from kasuist. There is consensus among the various schools of law when it comes to questions of ritual ablutions. Practicing Muslims are usually very familiar with the respective regulations.

PD Dr. Christian Müller, Center National des Recherches Scientifiques, Paris, Arabic studies

Source: Elger, Ralf / Friederike Stolleis (eds.): Kleines Islam-Lexikon. History - everyday life - culture. Munich: 6th, updated and expanded edition 2018.