What exactly are psychological skills

Psychology: Introduction: Psychological Skills



Psychological skills [edit]

On the psychological or cognitive abilities (one also uses the term intelligence) according to a well-known definition, the following components belong:[1]

Components of Mental Skills
  • Spatial imagination
  • Numeracy
  • Language comprehension
  • Verbal fluency
  • memory
  • Perception speed
  • logical thinking

Of all these factors, this chapter only deals with memory, i.e. the way it works, because it plays a relatively important role with regard to learning (cf. educational psychology).(1)


There are two different standard models of memory, which are briefly presented here.

The single storage model [edit]

This model consists of 69 levels of memory. They have no specific biological reference, but the model is sufficient for certain learning effects.

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When you acquire something, you memorize it. Depending on the strength of the stimulus and the assigned importance, it is absorbed more or less, i.e. at a certain level.

The multi-storage model [edit]

The multi-memory model consists of several memories. These differ in their storage duration and in their tasks. This model corresponds to the biological structure of our nervous system and our brain, but does not deal with neurobiological details, but is geared towards the usefulness for psychology and is based on empirical studies.

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Sensorimotor memory [edit]

The sensorimotor memory consists exclusively of bioelectrical impulses. In principle, this "memory" consists only of the information that our nervous system sends through our body. These arise from the external and internal stimuli that act on our body. The sensorimotor memory, however, only has a short memory capacity limited to fractions of a second, if you want to call it that at all. Unimportant information is already filtered here, and only information that is considered important enough is stored in the working memory (formerly also called short-term memory).

Working memory

The working memory receives the pre-filtered information from the sensorimotor memory. Only now are they consciously perceived. Otherwise our brain would be hopelessly overwhelmed with the huge flood of information from stimuli that constantly shower us. Working memory can store information longer, but not permanently. This is what the long-term memory is for, which stores the information from the short-term memory that is considered important enough.

The working memory is the interface to consciousness. It processes the information received, so if necessary passes it on to long-term memory, otherwise the information will be lost over time. Most of the information is retained in working memory for a few minutes; if it is repeated intensively, information can be retained for 24 hours. If the working memory needs information, it can also call it up from the long-term memory, similar to how the main memory of a computer fetches information from the hard drive.

Long-term memory [edit]

Long-term memory is biochemically created in our brain and can hold practically unlimited information, but only that which is provided by working memory. This "hard disk" basically stores the information forever. They are only erased when brain death sets in or when diseases such as Alzheimer's destroy the brain from within. However, it is not possible to get at this information somehow - it remains in the possession of the person who saved the information for a lifetime.