What are the functions of an engine
The internal combustion engine - function
How does an internal combustion engine basically work?
In an internal combustion engine, a fuel-air mixture is ignited and burned in a cylinder. The pressure created by the development and temperature-related expansion of the combustion gases acts on a piston, which is displaced as a result. In reciprocating piston engines, the up and down movement of the piston (stroke) is usually converted into a rotary movement by a crank drive.
There are a number of different internal combustion engines, some of which use different thermodynamic cycle processes.
All combustion engines repeat the work cycle, which consists of four work steps, in a circular process:
Source: Wikipedia - Barbarossa
Ejecting and sucking in are used for gas exchange, i.e. the exchange of exhaust gas (ejecting) for fresh gas (sucking in). The engine control is responsible for the technical implementation.
Compression and work serve to convert chemical energy (combustion of the fuel-air mixture) via thermal energy (heat) and potential energy (pressure) into mechanical energy (torque).
The work steps are often referred to as cycles.
However, this designation does not make sense for 2-stroke machines, as 2-stroke machines also perform all four work steps.
Here you can see the sequence of the 4 cycles on a Mitsubishi GDI sectional motor
Nice animation on the four-stroke principle
(= Perform service)
Description of the four bars
Principle of the four-stroke gasoline engine (from Wikipedia - also read the note below)
(Source: UtzonBike - animation from Wikipedia)
Animation from teilehaber.de
The movements of cycles one, two and four are carried out by the momentum that the crankshaft equipped with a flywheel has received during the working cycle. Since there is no momentum during the starting process, the crankshaft must be driven from the outside. A starting device such as a rope (chainsaw, boat engine), a pedal crank (motorcycle), a hand crank (vintage car), or a small electric motor (starter in a car) is used for this. Large engines (stationary or marine) are started by compressed air introduced directly into the cylinders.
The gas exchange between incoming fresh gases and burned exhaust gases is controlled by the camshaft. This runs with a reduction of 1: 2 coupled to the crankshaft and opens and closes the valves in the engine's cylinder head.
Comparison of working procedures
|4-stroke process: Each of the four work steps takes place during one cycle. In this case, “stroke” means a piston stroke, that is to say an upward or downward movement of the piston. During a work cycle with four cycles, the crankshaft rotates twice. The gas hub is closed, i.e. fresh gas and exhaust gas are completely separated from one another. In practice, however, there is brief contact during the so-called valve overlap.||2-stroke process: Even with the 2-stroke process, all four work steps take place, but during only two piston strokes (= cycles). This is possible because some of the suction and compression (pre-compression) takes place outside the cylinder, in the crankcase under the piston or in a supercharger. The crankshaft rotates only once during a work cycle. The gas exchange is open, which means that fresh gas and exhaust gas are partially mixed.|
with: OpenOffice Draw
by: A. Schierwagen
Two-stroke engines are mainly used where the price of the engine (simple construction) and the high power density have priority over fuel consumption and environmental protection. This applies above all to engines with a small displacement: mopeds, mopeds, Trabants, chainsaws, model making, motorcycle racing and large marine engines, which are also built as two-stroke diesel engines.
Wherever legislators and consumers pay attention to environmental protection and fuel consumption, four-stroke engines have prevailed.
Exotic types of engines
Rotary piston engine
The Rotary engine is a Rotary piston engine, named after Felix Wankel. In a rotary engine, an arched-triangular piston rotates in an oval-disk-shaped housing in an only slightly oscillating movement. The constant movement in the same direction of rotation results in very smooth running of the motor.
The rotary piston engine is very compact and does not require any valve control. Apart from the different types of movement, the principle of power generation corresponds to that of the gasoline engine. The four strokes are not carried out during an upward and downward movement of a piston, but rather during the rotary movement in a disk. Just as there are several cylinders in the reciprocating engine, several disks can also be combined in the Wankel engine.
You can find much more information at http://www.der-wankelmotor.de/
The Stelzer engine, named after its inventor Frank Stelzer, is a two-stroke free piston engine. In the Stelzer engine, only the piston is moved during the entire work process. Its different piston diameters open and close various openings in the housing and thus control the gas exchange at the same time.
Spherical piston engine
The basic concept of the spherical piston engine is a rotary piston engine which, as a special feature, realizes both the intake control and the size of the combustion chamber by means of a tumbling movement.
Two-stroke twin piston engine (Puch)
The Puch two-stroke twin-piston engine was a direct-current flushed two-stroke engine, in which two pistons in directly adjacent cylinders share the combustion chamber and act on a crankshaft throat via a split connecting rod. Because of its technical characteristics and its modest fuel consumption, it was used in motorcycles. The Puch works in Graz manufactured engines of this type from 1923 to 1970. Source: Wikipedia
short video about the double piston engine (Deutsches Museum)
5-stroke engine, Miller cycle, Atkinson cycle, articulated connecting rod are other interesting engine variants.
more about the combustion engine
more about the engine: | PS | Engine repairs | Control |
Some historical background
125 years of Daimler's gasoline engine
Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler developed the first high-speed petrol engine in 1883, after which he received the patent on April 3, 1885, and also built the first motor vehicle with a combustion engine in 1885, 125 years ago.
He was born on March 17, 1834 in Schorndorf and died on March 6, 1900 in Cannstatt near Stuttgart. He was a German engineer, designer and industrialist.
His goal has always been the development of small, fast-running internal combustion engines that should be usable everywhere and drive vehicles of all kinds on land and on water. In 1883 he registered a single-cylinder four-stroke engine with the patent office together with Maybach, who was employed by him, which, unlike the stationary gas-powered four-stroke engines that had been used until then, was powered by the combustion of gasoline. The combustion took place after the gasoline had been gasified in the float carburetor and via glow tube ignition of the gasoline-air mixture that was precompressed in the cylinder. The single-cylinder engine made of cast iron and brass, completed in 1885, weighed only 60 kilograms, had a displacement of 264 cm³ and developed less than 1 hp at 650 revolutions per minute. On April 3, 1885, Daimler received Imperial Patent No. 43926 for its power machine, which went down in technical history as a grandfather clock.
Another invention by Daimler and Maybach was the riding car constructed in 1885, the first motorcycle with a gasoline engine. This was followed by the installation of the gasoline engine in a boat and with it the invention of the motor boat. In October 1886, Daimler built his engine into a carriage, making him the inventor of the four-wheeled motor vehicle.
Daimler's and Maybach's engine (as well as that of Diesel) is one of the inventions that changed the world forever.
Source: Wikipedia user: Enslin
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