What is the backend of software

Back end

Backend (also back end or back end) is a term from information technology which denotes the Data processing and storage in the background from software, apps, websites and more. It is the counterpart to the front end, which describes the visible surface of applications. In a content management system (CMS), the backend is the Administration interface, on which you can write posts and change the appearance and functions in the frontend. This article primarily deals with the backend issue in relation to a CMS.

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definition

In general, the term backend includes all operations that take place in the background be made. It's part of the Layer model, a concept from IT technology that structurally defines software systems. It is believed that applications break down into different Functional layers let subdivide the content and technical related. Higher levels relate to lower levels, just as the frontend implements the commands from the backend. The backend in this model is the lowest levelto which all higher strata refer. The backend contains data, files and settings that can be made visible in the frontend.

Application examples

The backend can be found in all applications. In addition to the common website, the concept can also be found at other interfaces of interactive, digital media:

  • Apps: The backend of apps is in most cases in a Cloud such as Google's Firebase. These backend services make it possible to create, manage and test apps. Data synchronization, data storage and user authentication also take place there. The most common programming languages ​​for apps are PHP, Java, Swift, Python, and C #. Offer more control in the backend custom server, which are associated with more work.
  • Mail server:The e-mail traffic takes place on the basis of one Client-server model instead of. The mail server is a program that offers and executes the e-mail service. It represents the backend, while the client gives the commands in the frontend. In the mail server backend, e-mail data is saved, sent, saved as a draft and deleted.
  • Software: Almost any software can be divided into front and back end. Users operate software via the graphical user interface (GUI), which represents the front end. Its commands are then in the backend in the corresponding computer language implemented and sent back to the GUI.
  • Databases:A database is a data management system. The complete concept of databases is often referred to as the backend, as they are not visible to users and process all tasks and operations in the background. However, since databases are usually managed by application software, a database system itself can be divided into front and back end.

Backend in content management systems

In the context of content management systems such as WordPress, Joomla and Typo3, the back end refers to the administration interface. There, website operators can create and format pages and posts. Layouts and templates can be uploaded and adapted there. Information, texts and images are entered and managed in the backend of the CMS. There are a variety of possible operations that can be performed in the back end direct effects on the appearance and behavior of the website in the frontend to have. For example, you can change the font size or the background color in the back end.

The Modification of the website code is possible to a limited extent via the CMS backend. You can change the code of the template or theme in the design editor or upload new files. One possibility for extended processing of the code can be made with the help of an FTP program. This is also a backend where website operators can manage all uploaded or created files.

In the CMS backend you can still Plug-ins to be added. These expand pages with functions such as social media share and like buttons, which send positive social signals to search engines. In many cases, they are used by webmasters to find solutions that are easy to install. There are now tens of thousands of plug-ins across the various platforms. All are entered in the backend and can even be changed in the code.

Website and search engine optimization (SEO) in the back end

If websites are optimized in the backend, these are for the most part measures from the OnPage optimization. The technical implementation of the website plays an important role in on-page optimization. Among other things, the following aspects are dealt with:

  • Crawling and indexing:Search engine crawlers search through entire domains and try to understand their structure in order to output suitable search results. Clean code makes it easier for the crawler to understand the page better. The Sitemap.xml file is particularly important here. Here, all indexed URLs of a website are made machine-readable and should be made available in the Google Search Console. In addition, it is of course important to first inform the crawler that the page can be crawled at all. If possible, the entire page should be made available for crawling via the robots.txt file.
  • Canonical day: The canonical tag is used to avoid duplicate content. With the help of a element, duplicate / similar content can be avoided and an original resource can be marked.
  • NoIndex and NoFollow links: In the backend, links and entire pages can be set to noindex and nofollow. This is important for SEO because, for example, pages with thin content are not included in the index. Pages with content that is irrelevant for normal users, such as data protection, can also be excluded from the index.
  • Htaccess: The Htaccess page is used to define directory-related rules for a domain. For example, internal redirects can be set using 301. The Htacess file is therefore very important for search engine optimization.