What is ischemia


from Greek: ισχαιμια ("ischaimia"), is-chein / echein - hold back, αἷμα ("haima") - blood
Synonyms: reduced blood flow, insufficient blood flow
English: ischemia

1 definition

As Ischemia refers to the pathologically reduced or abolished blood flow to a tissue as a result of insufficient arterial supply of blood.

2 classification

2.1 ... by extent

One differentiates between one relative Ischemia (also: oligemia), in which insufficient blood flow is detectable, and one absolute Ischemia, which is characterized by the complete absence of arterial blood flow.

2.2 ... according to duration

If ischemia is temporary, it is called one passages Ischemia. Their effect on the tissue depends on its need for oxygen. Tissues with a high need for oxygen (e.g. the brain) have only a low tolerance to ischemia. Even a brief interruption of the blood flow of a few minutes can lead to irreversible damage.

If the insufficient supply of blood lasts longer than is tolerated by the tissue, the process is referred to as critical Ischemia. The damage that occurs in critical ischemia can take on different dimensions - in extreme cases it can lead to necrosis and loss of organs.

3 etiology

The causes of ischemia can be varied; some important ones are listed below:

annotation: In the classification, which goes back to Theiss, a distinction is made between neurogenic, hematogenic and functional causes of ischemia.

4 symptoms

As a result of the reduced blood flow in the context of ischemia, the affected organ or part of the body will fade and possibly pain and, if there is a prolonged lack of oxygen, ultimately necrosis.