What diseases does a hematologist treat

Focus on hematology / oncology

Hematology / oncology is a branch of internal medicine that deals with benign and malignant diseases of the blood, malignant diseases of the lymph nodes and the lymphatic system, and malignant solid tumors such as breast cancer or lung cancer. The development, frequency distribution, diagnosis, non-operative therapies and preventive measures of these diseases are areas of responsibility with which the internal focus on hematology / oncology is concerned. The diagnosis and treatment of bleeding and thrombosis tendencies are also important. Important and common diseases that prompt referral to a haemato-oncologist are solid tumors, such as B. lung and breast cancer, gastrointestinal cancer and the hematological systemic diseases of leukemia and lymphoma.

With the help of anamnesis, clinical examination and technical examination methods such as ultrasound examination, imaging procedures, endoscopic examinations as well as controlled organ puncture, the microscopic assessment of blood and bone marrow preparations and the use of immunocytological and molecular biological methods, the various haemato-oncological diseases can be diagnosed become. Different approaches to treatment, such as B. chemotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy with blood stem cell transplantation, immunotherapy with antibodies and hormonal therapy measures are available.

Since the treatment of solid tumors is an interdisciplinary task, special techniques and therapeutic measures are learned on the one hand during the advanced training in hematology / oncology. On the other hand, the advanced training is characterized by close interdisciplinary cooperation with first-aid doctors from surgery and radiation therapy as well as nuclear medicine, including psycho-oncological care. Basic knowledge of palliative medicine is also acquired. Treatment is often coordinated across disciplines in so-called tumor centers. There an individual treatment plan is drawn up for the patient.

The prospective specialist in internal medicine with a focus on hemato-oncology must complete a 6-year advanced training course at a recognized advanced training facility according to a set advanced training regulation after completing the medical degree. Defined examination and treatment procedures, such as ultrasound examination or the microscopic assessment of blood and bone marrow preparations, and treatment procedures, such as the entire spectrum of chemotherapy for malignant diseases and drug therapy for coagulation disorders, are listed in the advanced training regulations. At the end of the training period, the acquisition of the necessary knowledge, experience and skills, which the focus on hemato-oncology includes, is checked in an oral examination.