How many neutrons are in 2 kg

Stage

Solid, liquid and gaseous substances consist of atoms. It used to be thought that atoms could not be further divided. Hence the name "Atom" (from the Greek atomos'Indivisible). Atoms, however, in turn consist of smaller particles, the protons and neutrons (the so-called nucleons) in the atomic nucleus and the electrons in the atomic shell (or electron shell).

The electrically positively charged protons and the electrically neutral neutrons are located in the atomic nucleus; the nuclear charge is therefore positive. The negatively charged electrons are located around the positively charged atomic nucleus in the atomic shell (also known as the electron shell). In the electrically neutral state, atoms have exactly as many electrons in their shell as protons in their nucleus. When viewed from the outside, they are therefore electrically neutral. If this is not the case, they are called ions.

The diameter of the atomic shell can be more than 100,000 times that of the atomic nucleus. However, since the masses of protons and neutrons are almost 2,000 times higher than the mass of an electron, the atomic nucleus contains almost all of the atomic mass.

  • Core diameter: 10-15 m
  • Atom diameter: 10-10 m
  • Mass electron: electron 10-30 kg
  • Mass of proton or neutron: 10-27 kg

Chemical elements, nuclides and isotopes

The atoms of a chemical element always have the same number of (positively charged) protons in the atomic nucleus and therefore always the same nuclear charge. Based on the number of protons in the nucleus, the elements can be systematically represented in the periodic table of the elements. The number of neutrons in the atomic nucleus and thus the atomic mass, however, can vary.

A nuclide is an atom that exactly matches the number of protons and neutrons. If two atomic nuclei differ in the number of neutrons, but not in the number of protons, one speaks of so-called isotopes (Greek for: at the same place (in the periodic table)). A chemical element can therefore have several isotopes that differ in the number of neutrons.

In the case of some nuclides, the atomic nuclei disintegrate without any external influence, i.e. they transform into other atomic nuclei. These nuclides are called radionuclides.

During this process, ionizing radiation is emitted. This property is called radioactivity.

There are some naturally occurring radionuclides in nature, for example tritium (tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen). Radionuclides are also artificially produced in nuclear reactors.

Every radionuclide has a characteristic half-life. This is the period of time in which half of the amount of a radionuclide present in a starting material decays. It is not possible to predict which atom will decay and when. The half-life always relates to a large number of underlying atomic nuclei and only gives a statistical expected value.

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