How do you value Shakespeare psychologically?
About William Shakespeare's "Hamlet". The neurotic's sexuality
Table of Contents
2 Sigmund Freud: The Oedipus Complex and Hamlet
3.1 Gertrud: The object of desire
3.2 Ophelia: The substitute object
4 Freud's opposition
“Because many people already saw in dreams
Delivered to the mother "
(Jokaste in Sophocles ‘" King Oedipus ")
The present work will deal with Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic interpretation of Shakespeare Hamlet deal with. At the center of the 400-year-old stage drama is Prince Hamlet of Denmark. His father, the popular king, died. He was secretly murdered by his own brother Claudius. The latter ascends the throne and marries Hamlet's mother. The wedding of the two takes place just a month after the funeral of the dead king. The ghost of the murdered man appears to Hamlet and tells him to take revenge on Claudius. The young prince angrily swears blood revenge and promises retribution to his father's ghost. In the following, however, it is not possible for him to commit this retaliation. Hamlet repeatedly delays his revenge under various pretexts.1
Sigmund Freud used this fact at the beginning of the 20th century for his psychoanalytic interpretation of the stage drama. For Freud, the entire plot of the play is built on Hamlet's reluctance to "fulfill the vengeance assigned to him."2 It is the special nature of his task that makes Hamlet fail: he does not manage to kill the man "who shows him the realization of his repressed wishes for children."3 Freud assumes that every child has to go through and overcome the oedipal phase in order to later develop healthy sexuality.4 The little boy therefore wants his father dead for a while so that he can own the mother exclusively.5 Hamlet is representative of the neurotic who has never overcome this phase and has only repressed his oedipal desires.6 Claudius fulfills Hamlet's suppressed wish by killing his father and taking his mother as his wife. The psychoanalyst recognizes in this an identification of Hamlet with Claudius, which prevents him from exercising his revenge.7 According to Sigmund Freud, Hamlet's Oedipus complex manifests itself in his delay in taking revenge on Claudius.
Critic of the Freudian Hamlet Research indicates that Sigmund Freud developed this interpretation as part of his self-analysis. There was too much Freud in his interpretation of Hamlet. In this sense, T. S. Eliot shows that a work of art cannot be objectively criticized as long as the recipient wants to localize his own psyche in it.8 The parallels Freud draws between the fictional Hamlet and his real creator are also problematic. Sigmund Freud sees his oedipal interpretation reinforced by inferences about the life of Shakespeare. The psychoanalyst later has to admit that Shakespeare's authorship is extremely controversial.9 This fact turns references to the historical poet's life into pure speculation. For these reasons the Freudian applies Hamlet Interpretation for their opponents as outdated.10 The main argument against Freud's statements is that he treats the literary character Hamlet like a patient made of flesh and blood. However, this is not possible, since the dramatic figure cannot be put on the psychoanalytic couch and questioned.11 The only way to read a psychoanalytic interpretation from the text is the text itself.12 This work is also based on this maxim.
The aim of the work is to show the ongoing relevance of the thesis of Hamlet's Oedipus complex on the basis of the text. Freud's opponents concentrate on the incomplete demonstration of his thesis. Therefore, an alternative line of evidence is sought here. While Freud recognized the Oedipus complex more in Hamlet's hesitation, this work focused on Hamlet's sexuality. The applied methodology of text analysis prevents speculation about Shakespeare, as well as the humanization of the literary figure. The text analysis is based on the thesis that Hamlet's Oedipus complex can be proven on the basis of his neurotic libido. This thesis is based on the fact that Hamlet's neurosis arises from the conflict between oedipal desire and the cultural incest taboo. Hamlet's disturbed relationship to sexuality can be read openly from the text. Hamlet's sexual aversion is particularly evident when dealing with his girlfriend and his mother. The text analysis will therefore examine the sexually connoted dialogues between Hamlet and the two female characters. With the help of the primary text, Hamlet's incestuous desire for his mother and thus his Oedipus complex should be documented.
In preparation for the text analysis, Sigmund Freud's explanations on the subject of "oedipal desire" are considered. Here it is shown to what extent the infantile sexual development is related to the later neurosis. It becomes clear that neurosis and sexuality are inextricably linked. This Freudian conclusion provides the scientific basis for the considerations presented here. The text analysis is followed by a consideration of the psychoanalytic Hamlet - Interpretation against the artistic interpretation T.S. Eliot and the historical interpretation of Carl Schmitt. This is intended to achieve a final broadening of perspective and to test Freud's thesis on the basis of its criticism. This last point, like the rest of the work, is aimed at establishing the state of psychoanalytic interpretation within the Hamlet - Strengthen research.
2 Sigmund Freud: The Oedipus Complex and Hamlet
“I also found the love of my mother and the jealousy of my father in myself and now consider it to be a common occurrence from early childhood,” Sigmund Freud wrote in 1897 to his friend Wilhelm Fliess.13 Time and again, Freud describes the child as a highly egoistic being who would like to achieve the boundless love of his parents.14 It focuses on the parent of the opposite sex. So the little boy wants to drive away the father so that he can take his place with the mother. He sees in the father a competitor for the mother's love who has to be eliminated. Since children have not yet understood the full extent of death and associate it with pure absence, they wish the same-sex parent dead.15 Freud calls this phenomenon the "Oedipus complex", after the legend of King Oedipus who kills his father and marries his mother.16
For the founder of psychoanalysis, the Oedipus complex represents a stage in the development of the male child that develops in the phallic phase, i.e. between the fourth and sixth year of life.17 This development period is characterized by the gain in pleasure through the excitation of the genital zones. The child orients itself here to its caregiver - mostly the mother: "When the initial sexual satisfaction was still connected with the ingestion of food, the sex drive had a sexual object outside of its own body in the mother's breast."18 Freud describes the mother as "the first seductress of her son."19 He is well aware that the identification of maternal and sexual love will meet with categorical rejection. Freud emphasizes the need for this process of development by proclaiming that the mother only fulfills her natural task “when she teaches the child to love; It is supposed to become a capable person with an energetic sexual need and to accomplish everything in his life that the instinct urges people to do. "20
Later, however, this drive has to be directed towards objects outside the family circle. The Oedipus complex is inevitably destined to be overcome.21 Nevertheless, it is described by its discoverer as "the central phenomenon of the early sexual period".22 Because this developmental phase of the child is seen as formative for the sex life of the grown-up. Freud goes even further and takes the view that the man is looking for a partner based freely on the memory of his mother.23 This thesis is also used by Otto Rank in the context of his
The book “The incest motif in poetry and saga” confirms: “[...] the mother must become a stranger for the son in love in an erotic relationship, and the son must learn to turn his erotic feelings towards strange women, behind whom, however, [... ] the picture of the mother is standing. "24 Rank confirms this statement in his monograph on the incest motif with numerous prominent examples from literature.
The constant emergence of a motif in literature indicates its continued existence within human nature. This could be the maxim which Freud uses in defining the Oedipus complex. "The overwriting of Greek tragedy by his own theory is carried out by Freud by interpreting both tragedy and dreams as a form of wish-fulfillment in disguise."25 This idea is based on the fact that literature "becomes a symbolic place where that can be said that otherwise may not be said."26 Freud therefore understands literature as a depth psychological space in which people live out the fantasies and unknown desires that are not allowed to come into consciousness for cultural, moral and ethical reasons.27 The analyst identifies the evidence for this theory in the strong fascination that, as in this case, the story of King Oedipus exerted on mankind over centuries: “[T] he Greek saga takes up a compulsion that everyone recognizes because he felt its existence in himself. "28 In dealing with Oedipus' perverse crimes of slaying the father and marrying the mother, we are confronted with our own repressed, infantile desires.29 Incestuous or oedipal feelings are for Freud a topic that accompanies every person more or less through life.
However, in order to develop into a “capable person” with an “energetic sexual need”, “every human newcomer [...] is given the task of mastering the Oedipus complex; whoever does not manage to do it has succumbed to neurosis. "30 So if the “capable person” is already looking for his own mother in his partner, what about individuals who have “not managed to do much more than suppress the complex”?31 Sigmund Freud's answer to this question can be found again in the literature: Hamlet, the Danish prince of Shakespeare, represents for him the prototype of the neurotic. “If Oedipus literally establishes the norm of an infantile orientation of the libido, then Hamlet becomes the prototype of the Anomaly that consists in not overcoming the Oedipus phase victoriously. "32 Hamlet only repressed the oedipal phase, but never overcome it. This incomplete repression of id impulses by the ego leads to the suppressed impulse unfolding its pathogenic effect in the form of hysterical attacks.33 According to Freud, Shakespeare's drama begins at the point in the hero's mental life where his neurosis develops.34
The death of the father represents the fulfillment of a long repressed oedipal wish. Hamlet, who has never overcome the oedipal phase, is thrown back into his child's soul life. He approaches the goal of owning the mother exclusively.35 For this reason, his mother's hasty marriage to the brother of her late husband, Claudius, is a great disappointment for the prince. The new man places himself between him and his mother. Claudius realizes Hamlet's age-old wish: he kills his father and takes his mother as his wife. For Sigmund Freud, Hamlet is a modern Oedipus, a reworking of the old mythical material: "[I] n the changed treatment of the same material reveals the whole difference in the mental life of the two widely separated cultural periods, the secular progression of repression in the emotional life of mankind."36 According to Freud shows
Hamlet on that modern man has learned to banish from consciousness the infantile desire for incest with the mother. At the same time, Freud takes the position that repression brings about neuroses in humans due to cultural barriers.37
Because of the culturally acquired incest barrier, Hamlet cannot recognize Oedipus in himself. For him it is not possible to allow the oedipal longing for the murder of the father and the sexual intercourse with the mother without making himself morally guilty. Thus Hamlet's ego inhibits the oedipal id impulse by decisively pushing it out of his consciousness. However, the repressed impulse gains access to consciousness in a different way. After the censorship it appears in disguise as a hysterical symptom.38 According to Freud, Hamlet's Oedipus complex manifests itself right here, in its inhibitory effects: his inability to murder Claudius and his abysmal aversion to sex.39 The oedipal desires are pathologically reversed into their opposite: "The ideas that have become pathogenic through repression and the lack of an abreaction of the affects associated with them are [...] the basis of the development of the hysterical symptoms."40 Hamlet's paralysis of action with regard to the murder of Claudius and his aversion to his mother's sexuality can be seen as a hysterical reaction to the suppression of the Oedipus complex. Disguised as virtue, Hamlet develops an overpowering sexual disgust who unloads himself with both his mother and his girlfriend. The psychoanalyst Freud clearly recognizes here the hysteric who emerges.41
At this point the difference between Oedipus and Hamlet is defined: Oedipus realizes the wish, Hamlet merely wishes the wish.
“If Oedipus expresses the universal law in breaking the law and punishment, which is decisive in the emergence of morality, the moment that must necessarily be experienced and overcome, Hamlet, on the other hand, reveals through his specific inhibition the lack of overcoming, the fearful and hidden persistence of childlike desire. "42
There is no reason for Oedipus to become neurotic, he knows no inhibition of action. Jean Starobinski gets to the point when he proclaims: "There is nothing behind Oedipus, because Oedipus is the depth itself," because "Oedipus is the drive or, if you will, its illustration."43 According to Starobinski, the figure of King Oedipus ‘has nothing unconscious, as it already represents our unconscious in its entire existence.44 The fact that Oedipus resides as an unconscious in the cultural man Hamlet is what makes the subject so appealing to Freud. Because contrary to the realized wish of Oedipus is Hamlet "As a repressed representation of the desire for incest, it is even more informative for the analysis of the neuroses [...], which Freud actually matters."45 Freud therefore discovered the weighty counterpart to the Oedipus myth in Shakespeare's drama.46 With his analysis of the character of the drama, the psychoanalyst finds the representative of the neurotic par excellence: "[S] he shows that every neurotic himself was an Oedipus or, which is the same thing, has become a Hamlet in the reaction to the complex."47
Hamlet's suppressed Oedipus makes him a neurotic and especially a hysteric. According to Freud, hysteria is "a clearly definable psychoneurosis based on an unsolvable oedipal conflict."48 In particular, the psychoneurosis is triggered by a chronic instinctual conflict.49 Hamlet's neurosis is consequently the result of a disturbance in his infantile sexual development and is triggered by his instinctual conflict which has become chronic. This chronic instinctual conflict exists between the cultural incest barrier and his basic instinct for his mother's sexual affection. Repression and libido are in conflict with one another. In Hamlet Sigmund Freud sees his thesis represented and confirmed: Sexuality forms the core of all neuroses.50 "[T] he sexuality, as a source of psychological trauma and as a motif of 'defense', of suppressing ideas from consciousness, plays a major role in the pathogenesis of hysteria."51 For Freud, the neurotic's sexuality thus represents a closed cycle. A disturbance of infantile sexual development serves as the cornerstone, the decisive rejection of sexuality as a symptom of the neurosis.52 Thus the neurosis is inextricably linked with sexuality.
The aim of the following analysis is to confirm Freud's psychoanalytic interpretation of Shakespeare's drama and to prove Hamlet's Oedipus complex. Here a different line of argument than that originally chosen by Freud is emphasized. The Oedipus complex consists of two parts: the desire to murder the father and the desire to have sexual intercourse with the mother. While Sigmund Freud elevates the father to the center of the Oedipus complex, the relationship to the mother is focused here.53 It is highlighted that Hamlet's sexuality as a motive of defense plays an important role in the play and thus the main role in the pathogenesis of his hysteria. The subsequent analysis is based on the thesis that Hamlet's Oedipus complex can be demonstrated on the basis of his degenerate libido. If sexuality is at the core of all neuroses, the degenerate sexuality of the later neurotic must be due to its infantile development. Hamlet's attitude towards sexuality comes into play in his dealings with Gertrud and Ophelia. Hamlet's mother and girlfriend are the only two female characters in the play. His dealings with women are repeatedly characterized by violent misogyny, disgust and sexual aversion. This behavior represents the hysterical reaction to the repression of his oedipal desire: sexual intercourse with the mother. Hamlet's hysterical behavior towards Gertrud refers directly to his Oedipus complex, the behavior towards Ophelia indirectly. The hatred of the women he actually loved only developed after his mother's re-wedding. This marriage and the associated sexuality of Gertrude are seen here as the trigger for Hamlet's hysteria. In doing so, he transfers his disappointed oedipal feelings from his mother to his girlfriend. There is an object transfer that allows conclusions to be drawn about Hamlet's Oedipus complex.54 Before the outbreak of the neurosis, he chooses Ophelia as his girlfriend - after the memory picture of his mother. The course of his hysteria reveals that Hamlet orients himself exclusively on Gertrude when evaluating Ophelia. Having to compulsively equate the girlfriend with the mother indicates that Hamlet basically desires the mother and only uses Ophelia as a substitute object. In the following it is important to substantiate these theses on Hamlet's degenerate libido using the text.
3.1 Gertrud: The object of desire
After the death of her husband, Gertrud married his murderer, Claudius, within a month. The recipient does not find out more. It remains unclear whether Gertrude was involved in the fatal attack. Even when she is confronted directly with the accusation in the fourth scene, there is no clear answer - and none is asked for. The weighting of the facts can be held responsible for this. Hamlet generally mentions the murder of the old king in the same breath as the hasty marriage of Gertrud and Claudius. Not about the death of his father, but about his mother's wedding, he says: "I would have rather met my worst enemy in heaven than experienced that day [...]."55 It is not the father's murder that preoccupies Hamlet, but the mother's sexuality.56 Here Hamlet puts the emphasis on Claudius ‘unworthiness and on the incestuous nature of this connection. He says of his mother: "O most wicked speedy, with such agility to hurry into blood-rioting sheets!"57 Although there is only a related relationship between Gertrud and Claudius by marriage, Hamlet becomes entangled in the idea of incest. Hamlet compares Claudius to a moor on which Gertrud is feeding himself.58 This comparison is meant to illustrate the unhealthy and morbid nature of their marriage. He compares the "bloated king" to a toad or a bat.59 Claudius is in his eyes a "satyr" who turns his mother into a whore.60 Instead of discussing the guilt issue of the murder, the son focuses on his mother's sexuality. At the end of the fourth scene, Hamlet tells Gertrud to stop having sex with Claudius. The desperate request allows Hamlet to grasp the real problem with his mother: For him, remarriage and thus Gertrud's sex life is the essential crime, not murder.
Since the recipient can only see the figure of the mother through Hamlet's point of view, Gertrud's character is defined by the relationship with her son.61 The whore motif that emerges on this mother is shaped by the pathological perspective of the oedipal son. Your figure therefore has a negative sexual connotation. Hamlet's obsession for his mother's sexuality is channeled into his aversion. This deep sexual aversion is particularly evident in the fourth scene, the “Closet Scene”. In the queen's bedchamber the oedipal son talks himself in a rage. He goes into detail on the sexual act between her and Claudius: "[...] to live in the rancid sweat of a bed stuck with fat, to cuddle in degeneracy simmering honey-sweetly and to mate over the nasty mess ..."62 Although Hamlet's speech is already marked by profound disgust, he goes into more detail: “Pinch your cheek lustfully,” “Call you his little mouse,” “A couple of foul-smelling kisses,” and “Caress your neck with his cursed fingers. "63 Hamlet is a son who deals extensively with his mother's sexuality. His Oedipus complex is revealed at this point. His mother's sex act becomes a sick obsession as it represents Hamlet's deepest, forbidden desire.64 He becomes an aversion, since Hamlet suppresses this wish with all his might. Thus every word about his mother's sexuality is disguised with abysmal disgust.
Hamlet justifies the disgust by referring to the incest between Gertrud and Claudius. De facto, however, one cannot speak of incest here: Gertrud and Claudius are not related, only by marriage. Ernest Jones interprets this mistake in thinking as identification: Hamlet recognizes himself in Claudius. With the death of his father, Hamlet felt particularly close to fulfilling his goal of owning his mother. But another man takes the place at her side: "Yes, even more, this one is a member of the same family, so that the actual usurpation with the merely imagined one has the further resemblance of being a blood-molester."65 It is not Gertrud and Claudius who have the same blood flowing through them, but Hamlet and Claudius. Hamlet also locates his own wishes in Claudius' deeds. Should Hamlet's oedipal desire push into his consciousness through these parallels, it must be pushed out of consciousness just as strongly. Because Hamlet, a man of culture, horrifies his oedipal desires. As a neurotic he develops a systematic defense mechanism against these. Hamlet's defensive stance primarily focuses on Gertrud's sexuality. The Freudian interpretation suggests that the defense mechanism against his own sexual desires is reflected in the hysterical symptom of disgust. The hysteric Hamlet turns the original feeling of pleasure into its opposite: disgust.66 This interpretation explains why Hamlet deals so extensively with the sexual act between Claudius and Gertrud. In his remarks, he identifies with his mother's sexual partner. The sexual disgust is supposed to overlay and disguise the incestuous sexual desire.
That his mother represents a sexualized being for him is also shown by his behavior immediately before the "closet scene". The location of the pronunciation can be included here. The Queen calls Hamlet to her private bedchamber: "She wishes to talk to you in her room before you go to bed." This request includes a private meeting in the mother's bedroom, a place that can be associated with cohabitation. Hamlet replies: "We want to obey, and if she were our mother ten times."67 Hamlet seems only too willing to comply with Gertrude's request. With the stylistic hyperbole "she would be our mother ten times," the prince suggests that he will go to the bedchamber against any resistance. From a rational point of view, this statement makes no sense, as he is explicitly asked into her room. However, if the statement is based on the oedipal interpretation, the image of a son emerges who cannot wait to enter his mother's bedroom. A son who is ready to overcome any cultural, ethical and moral resistance - and if she were his mother ten times.
On the way there the excited prince has to admonish himself to calm down: "[...] never let the soul of Nero move into this firm breast, let me be cruel, not against nature."68 Otto Rank sees this admonition as a subconscious reference to Nero's mother incest:
"He doesn't want to become a second Nero to his mother, which consciously warns against matricide, but unconsciously aims at the maternal incest inseparably linked to Nero's name, to which he now seems to be given the opportunity."69
First and foremost, the son admonishes himself not to become violent against his mother. At the same time he calls himself the cultural incest barrier with this allegory before he enters his mother's bedroom. He does not want to act “against nature”, does not want to be guilty of a perverse crime. Despite this resolution, he becomes physical towards his mother. First he expresses a loud wish that Gertrud is not his mother, then he grabs her arm.70 The protagonist's statement and action are directly related here. The fact of the family relationship ultimately prevents him from fulfilling his wish: physical love. Hamlet performs the physical act against his mother so violently that Gertrud briefly fears for her life. For Madelon Gohlke, who examines sexuality in Shakespeare's works, Hamlet's violent outburst refers to his tremendous hysterical impulses towards Gertrud. In her essay “I wooed thee with my sword,” she recognizes that of a betrayed husband in Hamlet's behavior.71 As stated above, Hamlet regards his mother's remarriage as the essential crime: the oedipal son feels betrayed by his mother. It is his unrequited feelings that arouse both anger and disgust in Hamlet.
The oedipal son is extremely ambivalent about his mother's sexuality. For Hamlet, Gertrude is a lustful whore. The sexual relationship between his mother and Claudius disappoints the oedipal son and demeans the mother in his view to a whore.72 On the other hand, the unsuccessfully loving son tries to suppress this aspect and to regard the mother in pure purity, as a saint.73 A clear case of this repression comes into play in the “Closet Scene”. Although Hamlet does enough of Gertrude's flourishing sexuality, he tries to conjure the opposite. In this sense he comments on her relationship with Claudius: "[I] n your age the embers in the blood are tame, it is humble and follows the judgment of reason, [...]."74 This statement is in clear contrast to Hamlet's other remarks. Shortly beforehand he describes Gertrude's behavior as "polluting the grace and blushing of modesty."75 Shortly afterwards he goes into the detailed description of the sexual act between Claudius and Gertrud. Embedded in this nymphomaniac image of his mother, one can declare the apparently irrational sentence as wishful thinking. Towards the end of the “Closet Scene”, Hamlet clearly expresses the wish that his mother should regain her virtue.76 He asks them: "Be abstaining tonight, and that will make the following abstinence easier in some ways and the next even easier."77 In order to be able to prevent his own sexuality, he must also prevent the obvious sexuality of his mother, because they are inextricably linked. An Oedipus lives in Hamlet, but he is also a cultured person: he cannot fulfill his incestuous wish. Instead, the neurotic tries to press his lively mother into a chaste, pure and faithful ideal of woman and mother.
Hamlet's ideal image of a woman is particularly clear from two allegories in the text: Hamlet longs for a Hecuba or Niobe in Gertrud. The two mythical figures have in common that they are mothers and wives. Both experience great misfortune: they are forcibly robbed of their husbands and children. Both Niobe and Hecuba lapse into intense and persistent grief. Over her loss, Niobe freezes into a marble rock that cannot stop crying.78 An extraordinary expression of sadness and loyalty, which Hamlet also locates in his mother: "[W] he Niobe in tears, really she, [...]."79 Before Gertrud marries Claudius, she evidently fulfills Hamlet's ideal of a loving and faithful wife. For Hamlet, this ideal of his mother collapses after his father's death, as he is confronted with her sexuality. "[E] in an animal that lacks the gift of reason would have mourned longer," the disappointed son sums up.80 Hamlet states that Gertrud's behavior is voluptuous. In contrast to Niobe and Hecuba, Gertrud's love does not last long.81 About Hecuba it says in the piece: "[T] he outbreak of her wailing cry, which immediately raised her, which, unless mortal events did not move her at all, would have moisturized the burning hot heavenly eyes and pityingly the gods."82 Hecuba also represents the ideal of the woman who is loyal to her husband after death. Gertrud, who chooses a new partner shortly after her husband's death, can be viewed as antithetical to Hecuba. In contrast to Hecuba, Gertrud lies down in a new marriage bed as quickly as possible. Hamlet is confronted with her sexuality in an almost violent way. It is this sexuality that Hamlet's infantile desire for incest brings to light - in the context of his hysteria. A little more Hecuba in Gertrud would have spared Oedipus in Hamlet. With his virtuous ideal of women, the neurotic Hamlet would like to save himself having to deal with his mother's sexuality and thus his own libido.
3.2 Ophelia: The substitute object
For Hamlet, his mother fulfills the ideal of the faithful and virtuous woman until she marries Claudius. Hamlet's idea of Gertrude turns into the exact opposite. The oedipal son is deeply disappointed, feels betrayed and his mother is degraded to a whore. Hamlet generalizes the disappointment with the mother's behavior by exclaiming: "weakness, your name is woman."83 At the same time as this process, Hamlet turns away from his girlfriend Ophelia.84 And that, although the virginally naive Ophelia completely fulfills Hamlet's requirements for a woman: Ophelia could not be more virtuous. Nevertheless, Hamlet's sexual aversion and disappointment discharge, especially in her. Here one can assume an object transference: Hamlet transfers his feelings for Gertrud to Ophelia. For him, the boundaries between the two women are blurring, although Ophelia and Gertrud are positioned antithetically to one another.
In contrast to Gertrud's character, Ophelia's character is not defined by Hamlet's perspective on her. Ophelia's person is repeatedly the subject of debate. In addition, their personality comes into play in some places in the text. Ophelia is the daughter of Polonius and sister of Laertes. She is loyal to her father and brother, as is Hamlet, whom she obviously loves. It is the desperate attempt to remain loyal to these three men that plunges them into a conflict of conscience. Polonius and Laertes insist that they should not give in to Hamlet's declarations of love and should preserve their “chaste treasure”.85 So it is made clear right at the beginning that Ophelia is a virgin and should stay that way.Laertes advises her: "The really shy virgin is already revealing when her beauty reveals her to the moon." Ophelia is encouraged to be more virtuous than virtue itself, invisible to the male sex. Quite the faithful sister she replies: "I want to keep the meaning of this good lesson as a guardian to my heart." Ophelia will keep her word and die a virgin. In complete contrast to Gertrud, the figure of Ophelia embodies the purest form of innocence.
When Polonius defamed Hamlet's declarations of love as "offers that are not real currency", Ophelia defends the prince resolutely: "[He] r pressured me with love in an honorable manner."86 She firmly maintains this trait: Ophelia defends Hamlet's behavior against all opposition until her death. Although the neurotic treats her disrespectfully, insults and downright cruelly rejects her, she paints Hamlet's character in the most dazzling colors. Ophelia excuses his outburst with the alleged insanity: “Oh, what a noble spirit is broken here! The courtier, the warrior, the scholar's eye, tongue, sword, [...] the mirror of good manners and the pattern of courtly conduct [...]. "87 With her description, Ophelia paints a picture of perfection: She recognizes in Hamlet an educated gentleman as well as an army commander who would go to war for his country. She sees a courageous man of morals who knows how to express himself and who shines through his perfectly formed behavior. Ophelia's loyalty to Hamlet is characterized by the fact that, despite all the abuse, she never doubts his character, at most his mental health. She remains loyal to her father and brother by preserving her virginity and thus virtue. This tightrope act of loyalty reaches its peak with Ophelia's suicide and her previous madness. According to Otto Rank, Ophelia "as the chaste counterpart to Gertrude should represent the woman's loyalty beyond death, who is more likely to go mad than to betray the beloved (father or husband)."88
Before the onset of his neuroses, Hamlet was able to recognize and appreciate these qualities in Ophelia. At this point in time he affirmed his love for her with "all the holy oaths of heaven."89 Ophelia was so impressed by his words that she stuck to them until death:
“To the heavenly, and my soul idol, the most embellished Ophelia […].
Doubt that there is fire in stars, doubt that the sun moves, fear lies in the truth, but never doubt that I harbor love.
O dear Ophelia, I am bad at forging, I have not the art of counting my sighs; but that I love you more than anything, oh, far more than anything, believe that. "90
His words prove that Hamlet is sure of his love for Ophelia at this point. At the same time, the introductory sentence provides a hidden indication that his choice of object is related to the transfer of certain properties. Polonius, who cites the letter as proof of Hamlet's love, keeps on using the expression "embellished": "[T] he is a bad expression, a miserable expression, 'embellished' is a miserable expression."91 In fact, this term seems strange within a love letter. Before the outbreak of his neuroses, Ophelia is embellished by Hamlet. Here one can interpret that it is already beautiful, but Hamlet embellishes it in his imagination until it becomes the idol of his soul. He describes Ophelia as "heavenly" - a word that is used to describe non-existent beliefs. Hence, it is Ophelia's idea that Hamlet loves. If one looks at this "embellishment" of the choice of objects according to Freud, the ideal of the mother must be addressed. In Ophelia he seems to have found a woman, "after the memory image of his mother, as it has dominated him since the beginning of childhood."92 According to Sigmund Freud, this is a natural aspect of partner choice. For Freud proclaims that the choice of objects generally takes place freely based on the example of the parent of the opposite sex.93 Ophelia embodies the virtue and loyalty that he long believed to be located in his mother. The fact that Hamlet also "beautifies" her, however, suggests that he would like to further adapt her to his mother's image. "For Hamlet, Ophelia is a clear substitute for his mother [...]," Otto Rank states.94 For Hamlet, Ophelia, the image of his mother, promises the fulfillment of a wish in the form of overcoming the incest barrier. The more she becomes Gertrud in his mind, the greater the substitute satisfaction. In Hamlet's emotional world, Ophelia takes the place that the oedipal child and the mother occupy. Because of this, there is a strong connection between Gertrud and Ophelia for him.
After Hamlet's ideal of his mother has turned into the opposite, his feelings for Ophelia also adapt. This process takes place when he visits her in her room. Ophelia reports on a meeting that shows some parallels to the later "Closet Scene" between Hamlet and Gertrud. "[With] the doublet completely unbuttoned," he steps in front of her, "no hat on his head, the stockings are dirty, without a knee strap, [...]." Hamlet is obviously upset and half-naked. Just as the “closet scene” is sexually charged because it is located in Gertrud's bedchamber, the lack of proper clothing creates sexual tension here. With Ophelia, his hysterical impulses discharge long before he becomes physical towards his mother. Like Gertrud, he painfully grabs Ophelia by the arm and holds her tight.95 While Gertrud fears for her life, Ophelia is just very scared.96 At this point, Ophelia is already avoiding Hamlet's company - at her father's behest. Polonius fears for his daughter's virginity, as this goes hand in hand with his reputation. Hamlet interprets Ophelia's rejection by orienting himself on the behavior of his mother. The disappointed Hamlet twisted the actual reason for their actions, namely virtue, into its opposite, viciousness. This is expressed when he later accuses her of having a lover or accuses her of the lack of persistence in “womanly love”.97 In Hamlet's mind, the two women merge into a single mirage. In her room Hamlet looks at Ophelia for a long time, then "he lets out such a pitiful and deep sigh that it seems to blow his whole body apart and end his life".98 Hamlet looks at Ophelia as if he is seeing her correctly for the first time. Obviously this causes him excruciating pain, which is expressed in the pitiful sigh. He chooses her as a friend, following his mother's example. But as soon as the model no longer exists, Hamlet's beliefs fall apart. Since he has used Ophelia as a mother substitute from the start, he registers his mother's crime in her: the deception against him. Where he previously recognized “his soul's idol” according to the ideal of the mother in Ophelia, he now projects his oedipal disappointment onto her.
Despite her virtue, Hamlet reproaches Ophelia, all of which can be related to Gertrud. This fact is confirmed by Hamlet's choice of words. Hamlet preaches chastity to both Ophelia and his mother. While for Ophelia he finds a comparison with "ice" and "snow", for Gertrud he chooses the paradox "burning frost."99 Another analogy can be found in his allegation of pimp. In Gertrud's case, "the mind does the coupler service to the will."100 With Ophelia it is beauty that transforms her mind into a matchmaker. Immediately after the “to be or not to be” monologue, he questions Ophelia's virtue. He suggests that she has changed because her beauty can only spoil virtue: “For the power of beauty is more likely to transform virtue from what it is into a matchmaker than the power of virtue is to transform beauty can transform into their own kind. "101 Since the offense of pimping is close to that of prostitution, one can read out the reproach: Ophelia's virtue is only being played, she herself a whore like Gertrude. Hamlet repeats this accusation more clearly when he tells Ophelia to go to a nunnery. He implies: "You misnamed God's creations and spend your lust for ignorance."102 Despite Ophelia's extraordinary chastity, Hamlet is annoyed by her allegedly dissolute behavior: “I am also informed about your painting, more than enough. God gave you one face, and you make yourselves different, you bob, you dance, and you lisp, [...]. "103 The "painting" stands here as a metaphor for whitewashing the true character. Just as a whore covers her face with powder in an elegant pallor, Ophelia paints over her lustfulness with mock naivety. He finally recognized that, because "the present now proves it."104 It becomes clear that due to recent events, he is revising and negatively sexualizing his image of Ophelia. At first sight this is a paradoxical process, as the recent past in the piece emphasizes its chastity. It is only Gertrude who disappoints Hamlet in this respect and thus destroys his belief in the love and loyalty of Ophelias.105 Since the latter is Hamlet's substitute object for his mother, Gertrud's behavior has a direct effect on his relationship with Ophelia. The reflection “I once loved you” and the following revision “I did not love you” also fall within this grid.106 Hamlet loves Ophelia because of her embodiment of his mother's ideal. As soon as this ideal no longer exists, his idea of Ophelia no longer exists either. He feels repeatedly deceived and betrayed. This interpretation is reinforced by Hamlet's speech in the later "Closet Scene". He accuses his mother of having committed an act which "takes the rose from the beautiful forehead of an innocent love and burns it [...] and turns the intimate, sacred promise into an empty torrent of words."107 These explicit allegations subconsciously reference Hamlet's behavior towards Ophelia. Before Gertrud's wedding to Claudius, the two shared an “innocent love.” This becomes, so to speak, a painful “brand” for Hamlet, since he can no longer believe in the substance of this love. The pain he feels at this realization is expressed when he seeks out Ophelia, disturbed. She describes his sigh as bloodcurdling and life-ending.108 Hamlet then breaks his "sacred promise" to Ophelia, which he once affirmed with "all the sacred oaths of heaven."109 Hamlet's declarations of love thus turn into “an empty torrent of words.” Hamlet sums up, “I did not love you,” since this love is apparently based on an illusion. At this point, the prince indirectly blames his mother for the failure of his relationship. Hamlet's speech suggests that Gertrude's behavior influences his feelings for Ophelia.
The preceding analysis was able to show, on the basis of selected text passages, that Ophelia is only the substitute object for Gertrud. For Oedipal Hamlet, the mother is the real object of desire. Hamlet suppresses the subconsciously sexual and consciously violent feelings towards his mother for as long as he can. Before his anger at Gertrud discharges in the “Closet-Scene”, the neurotic uses his
Substitute object Ophelia to discharge the hysterical impulses. Hamlet's ostensibly irrational behavior towards Ophelia makes sense from the point of view of object transference. The shock that Hamlet suffered from his mother's quick marriage can be blamed for the occurrence of his neuroses. The continuous pushing back of his oedipal attacks leads to the hysterical symptom of sexual disgust. As soon as his mother's ideal image is destroyed, he turns away from his girlfriend. In doing so, he transfers his feelings towards Gertrud to his surrogate, Ophelia. The initially positive selection criterion for Hamlet's choice of object is wrongly reversed into his negative. This proves that Hamlet identifies his girlfriend with his mother. Hamlet's erotic feelings are concentrated on his mother in the infantile-oedipal manner. With the evidence of Hamlet's desire for his mother, Sigmund Freud's thesis about Oedipus in Hamlet could also be confirmed. Hamlet's neurotic object transference and the hysterical attacks of sexual disgust confirm the thesis that he is a psychoneurotic and a hysteric. Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic interpretation could be reinforced by analyzing Hamlet's degenerate libido.
4 Freud's opposition
Shakespeare Hamlet first appears at the beginning of the 17th century. In the 400 years of public reception, Sigmund Freud is not the only interpreter of the piece. Long before Freud's psychoanalytic interpretation, Shakespeare's stage drama was understood as a philosophical masterpiece. For August Wilhelm Schlegel, who translated the piece into German at the beginning of the 19th century Hamlet the "prime example of a philosophical tragedy".110 Schlegel sees in the figure of Hamlet a "genius, gifted with the highest intellect, [who] can no longer be a hero after he has grasped the essence of human existence in all its abyss."111 According to Schlegel, Hamlet was not incapable of acting, he had merely recognized the worthlessness of the heroic act. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe interprets Hamlet's inhibition to act quite differently. For Goethe, Hamlet is simply not up to the task. The prevented hero is too melancholy, too melancholy, noble and especially too aesthetic.112 In the course of its ongoing reception it is subject Hamlet the most varied of interpretations: philosophical, realistic, historical, artistic and even psychological. The aim of the present work is to strengthen the psychoanalytic interpretation according to Sigmund Freud and thus to prove Hamlet's Oedipus complex. Because "the psychoanalytic approach is considered outdated by many [...]."113 Critics point out that it is not possible to put a literary figure like Hamlet on the psychoanalyst's couch because he does not exist outside of his fictional discourse. In addition, Freud's speculations about Shakespeare's mental life are problematic, since one cannot equate creator and work. In the following two opponents of Freud will be considered. This is intended to broaden the perspective and to test Freud's thesis on the basis of its criticism. The historical interpretation according to Carl Schmitt and the artistic interpretation according to T. S. Eliot are examined below.
T. S. Eliot does not believe in measuring the stage drama by the character of the protagonist. In “Hamlet and His Problems” he proclaims that one gets closer to the mystery of dramatic art as soon as one regards the work as an overall position. 114 He criticizes the focus on the main character. In their endeavor to decipher Hamlet's character, the recipients would put too much personal information into their interpretation.115 According to Eliot, this type of critic is more likely to explore one's own psyche than to properly evaluate the work of art.116 He openly criticizes Goethe, and indirectly this criticism can also be related to Freud. For Freud discovered Oedipus in Hamlet as part of his self-analysis.
Eliot even goes so far as to claim that one cannot interpret a work of art at all, only criticize it.117 It is not possible to fully understand a work of art because too many components are involved in its creation. According to Eliot, you have to have all the facts about the creation process of Hamlet know - and even more, one must accumulate the same knowledge about Shakespeare's sources of interpretation.118 Because it wasn't Shakespeare who Hamlet completely re-created: Hamlet be stratification.119 Saxo Grammaticus ‘Amleth, The Spanish Tragedy and a fairy tale by Belleforest - Shakespeare orientated himself too strongly on these models.120 For Eliot, the reproduction of Shakespeare is bungling.He simply took over superfluous and contradicting scenes from his sources of inspiration. This leads to the fact that Hamlet full of absurdities that simply cannot be turned into art.121 Around Hamlet so to want to interpret, one has to understand things that even Shakespeare did not understand.122 Eliot becomes even more explicit in his severe criticism by adding Hamlet referred to as the artistic failure of Shakespeare.123 The critic focuses on the lack of an "objective correlative" within the drama. For him, this is the only way to express emotions through art.124 The correlative is the formula for art, the specific shell for the unspecific interior. It represents the external relation to the inner world of emotions. Eliot sees the creation of such a correlative as a condition for artistic creation. However, there is no external equivalent for Hamlet's feelings. Shakespeare failed in his task of creating art. Therefore Eliot takes the provocative thesis that Shakespeare's famous drama cannot be art.125
On the other hand, Carl Schmitt does not even raise the question of whether this is art. In contrast to Eliot, he takes a clear interpretation approach that focuses on the protagonist. In Hamlet he discovers the historical figure of King Jacob, son of Maria Stuart.126 "Even we are still able to recognize this other figure today, if we are not blindfolded by the dogmas of a certain art philosophy."127 This statement by Schmitt can be seen as a direct response to Eliot's remarks. Contrary to his art criticism, Schmitt pleads for the historical interpretation of Shakespeare Hamlet. He criticizes Eliot's remarks for failing to appreciate the objective circumstances in which a work was created.128
“In any case, the philosophers of art and the teachers of aesthetics tend to regard the work of art as a self-contained, […] autonomous creation and to understand it only from within itself. [...] So we encounter sharp distinctions and fundamental separations, barriers and barriers to opposing perspectives, developed value systems that only recognize their own passports and certificates, [...]. "129
Schmitt makes it clear that he regards this type of hermeneutics as an elitist limitation. In “Hamlet or Hekuba” he therefore endeavors to present historical evidence for his historical interpretation. The main point of consideration here is the historical situation. William Shakespeare served as royal valet under King Jacob and was entitled "King's Man."130 Shakespeare's protagonist Hamlet and the historical figure Jacob are in the same starting position: sons of queens who murder fathers. Here Schmitt addresses the mother's unresolved question of guilt. over Hamlet he states: "In the whole play it remains unclear whether the mother was complicit in the murder or not."131 Mary Stuart's guilt also remains controversial.132 According to Schmitt, the unresolved question of guilt refers to the explosive nature of the issue. In Protestant England "the audience of the Hamlet drama [...] and especially London, of course, was convinced of the guilt of Maria Stuart."133 Out of consideration for King Jacob, however, Shakespeare was unable to reveal the mother's guilt. For Schmitt, Gertrud's unexplained complicity thus proves the historical taboo.
He also registers the historical figure Jacob in Hamlet's character. Hamlet's speeches are predominantly characterized by intelligence and ambiguity - qualities that are also attributed to Jacob. Schmitt explains that "[Jakob] became clever and two-faced and learned to deceive his friends," explains Schmitt, based on the turmoil of his time. Born into political unrest and exposed to conflict between Catholics and Protestants, Jakob is a product of his unstable environment. Thus Schmitt assumes: "A king, who in his fate and character was the product of the conflict of his age himself, stood before the author of the tragedy in his own existence."134 This explains for him Hamlet's puzzling inhibition to act. Like Goethe, Schmitt describes his constant delay in revenge as "weakness through reflection."135 Unlike Goethe, however, Schmitt locates Hamlet's inner conflict in the historical conflict of Jacob.
For although Carl Schmitt sees Eliot's art criticism as an elitist limitation, he agrees with Eliot in rejecting the philosophical approach to interpretation. Schmitt is also hostile to psychoanalytic interpretation. He even describes this as the "death convulsion" of the psychological stage of the Hamlet -Interpretation.136 The riddle Hamlets According to Schmitt, this can only be solved on the basis of objective historical reality.137 Here, however, one encounters the core problem of historical interpretation. It is not possible to prove an objective historical reality after more than 400 years. The historical references to Shakespeare are particularly problematic. Sigmund Freud admits this to himself: "On the [...] assumption that the author of Shakespeare's works was the man from Stratford, I have since become insane."138 The lack of clarity about Shakespeare's authorship turns any reference to his historical life into pure speculation. Schmitt ignores this aspect in favor of his interpretation. He presents his assumptions about the author of the Hamlet -Dramas as objective historical reality.139 The criticism that Freud received on the basis of his Shakespeare speculations also applies to Schmitt's historical interpretation. Also for the continued popularity of the historical finger pointer he used in Hamlet sees, Schmitt has no explanation. He merely notes that himself Hamlet also “without any historical, philosophical or allegorical
Secondary meaning and without any sidelong glance as a pure game [allows] to be performed. "140 Most of the scenes are just pure play scenes. Before the recipient takes a different approach than the historical one, he would be better advised not to interpret the piece at all: “After all, even the harmless game results in a better and inwardly freer representation than the continuation of the attempts, the two intrusions with philosophical or psychological ones Stuffing introductions. ”Carl Schmitt urgently advises against alternative interpretive approaches.
“Nowhere in Shakespeare is there an explanation for Hamlet's strange inaction,” admits Schmitt.141 He himself fills this void with historical references, T. S. Eliot recognizes in it the artistic failure of Shakespeare and Sigmund Freud the Oedipus complex. Evidently there is evidence for each of these versions - none can be categorically excluded. At the same time, there are gaps in every interpretation that their opponents cite as points of criticism. The critics of the Freudian Hamlet - Interpretation finds its justification as well as its proponents. Instead of claiming the monopoly on the “correct” interpretation, it must be recognized that Hamlet gives his recipient this leeway for interpretation. In contrast to others Hamlet Sigmund Freud was able to admit this fact to researchers: "[Y] every genuine poetic creation [will] have emerged from more than one motive and one suggestion in the poet's soul and allow more than one interpretation."142
As pointed out in the previous chapter, Sigmund Freud's is psychoanalytic Hamlet -Interpretation controversial. There was too much self-analysis in Freud's interpretation, too little “objective historical reality.” Particularly problematic: Freud transformed the literary figure into a patient made of flesh and blood. In addition, the psychoanalyst speculates about the soul life of the creator Shakespeare based on the constitution of the character Hamlet. Freud's argumentation for his thesis is controversial and much criticized. The arguments of Freud's opponents are justified. Your strategy of wanting to monopolize your own interpretive approach, however, does not. As illustrated above, alternative interpretations also have gaps. In addition, the core of Freud's arguments cannot be refuted, on the contrary. The present analysis proves that the Oedipus complex can be traced within the text. Due to the exclusive text analysis, the evidence comes from without speculation about the person "Shakespeare". Hamlet's psyche is measured only by his speech. Concentrating on the text also prevents the humanization of the literary character. The psychoanalytic interpretation of the drama can thus be carried out without putting the protagonist on the psychoanalytic couch and viewing him as a patient.
In contrast to Freud, the argument chosen here concentrates on Hamlet's sexuality - the sexuality of the neurotic. His neurotic libido can be seen directly from the text. Hamlet's obsession with his mother's sexuality, object transference to Ophelia, and the hysterical affect of sexual disgust define Hamlet's degenerate libido. The text shows that Hamlet's dialogues with Gertrud and Ophelia have serious parallels. The merging of the usually sexually connoted partner with the mother proves Hamlet's incestuous desire. This also comes to the fore through his obsessive engagement with Gertrud's sex life. The oedipal son longs for sexual intercourse with his mother, but the cultured person is disgusted with this taboo. Hamlet becomes hysterical about the conflict between the libido and the incest barrier. In the analysis, this hysteria is proven on the basis of his sexual disgust. By concentrating on Hamlet's sexuality, Freud's thesis of the oedipal neurotic could be substantiated. Without alternative interpretations of Shakespeare Hamlet could exclude the position of psychoanalytic interpretation within the Hamlet -Research to be strengthened.
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1 See Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014.
2 Freud, Sigmund: “The Interpretation of Dreams” in The Interpretation of Dreams and Other Scriptures, Frankfurt: Dörfler Verlag 2013, p. 220.
4 Cf. Freud, Sigmund: “The Downfall of the Oedipus Complex” in Small fonts II, Project Gutenberg. Web.
6 See Starobinski, Jean: Psychoanalysis and literature, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag 1973, p. 135.
7 Cf. Freud, Sigmund: "The Interpretation of Dreams" in The Interpretation of Dreams and Other Scriptures, Frankfurt: Dörfler Verlag 2013, p. 220.
8 See Eliot, T. S .: "Hamlet and His Problems," in The Sacred Wood - Essays on Poetry and Criticism, London: Faber and Faber Limited 1997, p. 81.
9 Since then, "the fact that the author of Shakespeare's works was the man from Stratford has become maddened me." (Freud, Sigmund: "The Interpretation of Dreams" in The Interpretation of Dreams and Other Scriptures, Frankfurt: Dörfler Verlag 2013, p. 221.)
10 See Williams, Andrew: Reading key: William Shakespeare - Hamlet, Stuttgart: Reclam Verlag 2009, p. 78.
11 Cf. Flint, Kate: "Madness and melancholy in Hamlet," in (eds.) Linda Cookson, Brian Loughrey, Critical essays; Hamlet - William Shakespeare, Essex: Longman 1988, p. 64.
12 See Selden, Raman: "Hamlet’s word-play and the Oedipus complex," in (eds.) Linda Cookson, Brian Loughrey, Critical essays; Hamlet - William Shakespeare, Essex: Longman 1988, p. 89.
13 Freud, Sigmund: From the beginnings of psychoanalysis, London: IMAGO Publishing LTD, 1950, p. 238.
14 Cf. Freud, Sigmund: "The Interpretation of Dreams" in The Interpretation of Dreams and Other Scriptures, Frankfurt: Dörfler Verlag 2013, p. 213.
16 “I mean the legend of King Oedipus and the eponymous drama by Sophocles. Oedipus, the son of Laïos, king of Thebes, and Jokaste, is abandoned as an infant because an oracle had announced to the father that the unborn son would be his murderer. He is rescued and grows up as a king's son in a foreign court until he, unsure of his origin, consults the oracle himself and receives advice from him to avoid his homeland because he would have to become the murderer of his father and his mother's husband. On the way away from his supposed homeland, he meets King Laïos and kills him in a quick argument.Then he arrives in front of Thebes, where he solves the riddle of the sphinx blocking the way and, in gratitude, is elected king by the Thebans and presented with Jokaste's hand. For a long time he ruled in peace and dignity and fathered two sons and two daughters with his unknown mother, until a plague broke out, which prompted the Thebans to question the oracle again. This is where the tragedy of Sophocles begins. The messengers bring the news that the plague will end when the murderer of Laïos has been driven out of the country. But where is he? […] The plot of the play consists of nothing more than the step-by-step and artistically delayed disclosure - comparable to the work of a psychoanalysis - that Oedipus himself is the murderer of Laïos, but also the son of the murdered man and the Jocaste. Shaken by his unknowingly perpetrated atrocities, Oedipus blinds himself and leaves his home. The oracle is fulfilled. ”(Freud, Sigmund:“ The Interpretation of Dreams ”in The Interpretation of Dreams and Other Scriptures, Frankfurt: Dörfler Verlag 2013, p. 217.)
17 Cf. Freud, Sigmund: “The Downfall of the Oedipus Complex” in Small fonts II, Project Gutenberg. Web.
18 Freud, Sigmund: Three essays on the theory of sex, Project Gutenberg. Web.
19 Jones, Ernest: The problem of Hamlet and the Oedipus complex, Leipzig: Franz Deuticke 1911, p. 38.
20 Freud, Sigmund: Three essays on the theory of sex, Project Gutenberg. Web.
21 See ibid.
22 Freud, Sigmund: “The Downfall of the Oedipus Complex” in Small fonts II, Project Gutenberg. Web.
23 Cf. Freud, Sigmund: Three essays on the theory of sex, Project Gutenberg. Web.
24 Rank, Otto: The incest motif in poetry and legend. Basics of a psychology of poetic creation, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1974, p. 61.
25 Geisenhanslüke, Achim: The shibboleth of psychoanalysis. Freud's Passages of Scripture, Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2008, p. 58.
27 Sigmund Freud assumes that thinkers and writers long before him had a very special understanding of human nature and its complex psyche. He, Sigmund Freud, only discussed the scientific parameters in order to be able to break down seemingly irrational impulses in human nature or literature. (See Brown, Carolyn: Shakespeare and Psychoanalytic Theory, London: Bloomsbury 2015, p. 16.)
28 Freud, Sigmund: From the beginnings of psychoanalysis, London: IMAGO Publishing LTD, 1950, p. 238.
29 Cf. Freud, Sigmund: "The Interpretation of Dreams" in The Interpretation of Dreams and Other Scriptures, Frankfurt: Dörfler Verlag 2013, p. 218; See Starobinski, Jean: Psychoanalysis and literature, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag 1973, p. 112.
30 Freud, Sigmund: Three essays on the theory of sex, Project Gutenberg, Web.
31 Cf. Freud, Sigmund: “The Downfall of the Oedipus Complex” in Small fonts II, Project Gutenberg. Web.
32 Starobinski, Jean: Psychoanalysis and literature, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag 1973, p. 135.
33 Cf. Freud, Sigmund: “The Downfall of the Oedipus Complex” in Small fonts II, Project Gutenberg. Web.
34 Cf. Freud, Sigmund: “Psychopathic Persons on the Stage” in Small fonts I, Project Gutenberg. Web.
35 Jones, Ernest: The problem of Hamlet and the Oedipus complex, Leipzig: Franz Deuticke 1911, pp. 34,42.
36 Freud, Sigmund: “The Interpretation of Dreams” in The Interpretation of Dreams and Other Scriptures, Frankfurt: Dörfler Verlag 2013, p. 219.
37 Cf. Freud, Sigmund: "The" cultural "sexual morality and modern nervousness" in Collected Works Vol. VII, Frankfurt: Fischer 1999, pp. 141-167.
38 See Stangl, Werner: Online encyclopedia for psychology and education, Word Press 2016, Web.
39 Cf. Freud, Sigmund: "The Interpretation of Dreams" in The Interpretation of Dreams and Other Scriptures, Frankfurt: Dörfler Verlag 2013, p. 219.
40 Breuer, Josef; Sigmund Freud: Studies on Hysteria, Frankfurt: Fischer Taschenbuch 2011, p. 8.
41 Freud, Sigmund: The Interpretation of Dreams and Other Scriptures, Frankfurt: Dörfler Verlag 2013, p. 220.
42 Starobinski, Jean: Psychoanalysis and literature, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag 1973, p. 132.
43 Starobinski, Jean: Psychoanalysis and literature, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag 1973, pp. 122, 127.
44 Ibid. P. 121.
45 Geisenhanslüke, Achim: The shibboleth of psychoanalysis. Freud's Passages of Scripture, Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2008, p. 73.
46 See Starobinski, Jean: Psychoanalysis and literature, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag 1973, p. 119.
47 Freud, Sigmund in Jean Starobinski: Psychoanalysis and literature, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag 1973, pp. 119f.
48 Breuer, Josef; Sigmund Freud: Studies on Hysteria, Frankfurt: Fischer Taschenbuch 2011, p. 12.
49 See. Online encyclopedia for psychology and education, Word Press 2016. Web.
50 Cf. Breuer, Josef; Sigmund Freud: Studies on Hysteria, Frankfurt: Fischer Taschenbuch 2011, p. 12.
51 Ibid. P. 23.
52 Cf. Freud, Sigmund: From the beginnings of psychoanalysis, London: IMAGO Publishing LTD, 1950, p. 239.
53 Cf. Freud, Sigmund: Totem and taboo, Project Gutenberg, Web.
54 See ibid.
55 Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, p. 117.
56 "What bothers Hamlet the most is not the murder of his father but the lust of his mother." (Brown, Carolyn: Shakespeare and Psychoanalytic Theory, London: Bloomsbury 2015, p. 18.)
57 Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, p. 115.
58 See ibid. P. 289.
59 See ibid. P. 297f.
60 Ibid. P. 393.
61 See Reinhard Lupton, Julia; Kenneth Reinhard: After Oedipus - Shakespeare in Psychoanalysis, Ithaca and London: The Davies Group Publishers 1993, p. 112.
62 Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, p. 291.
63 Ibid. P. 297ff.
64 Cf. Cunningham, John: "Is Hamlet a Problem Play?" In (ed.) Linda Cookson, Bryan Loughrey: Hamlet - William Shakespeare, Essex: Longman 1988, p. 21.
65 Jones, Ernest: The Problem of Hamlet and the Oedipus Complex, Leipzig: Franz Deuticke 1911, p. 42.
66 See Rank, Otto: The incest motif in poetry and legend. Basics of a psychology of poetic creation, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1974, p. 58.
67 Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, p. 269.
68 Ibid. P. 273.
69 Rank, Otto: Psychoanalytic Contributions to Myth Research - Collected Studies from the Years 1912 to 1914; Leipzig and Vienna: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag 1919, p. 77.
70 Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, p. 285.
71 Gohlke, Madelon: “I wooed thee with my sword”, in (ed.) Coppélia Kahn, Murray M. Schwartz, Representing Shakespeare - New Political Essays, Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press 1980, p. 173.
72 See Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, p. 393.
73 See Rank, Otto: The incest motif in poetry and legend. Basics of a psychology of poetic creation, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1974, p. 71.
74 Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, p. 289.
75 Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, p. 287.
76 See ibid. P. 297.
78 See . Schwab, Gustav : The most beautiful sagas of classical antiquity: Niobe, in (ed.) Wolfgang Morscher. Web.
79 Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, p. 113.
81 Ibid. P. 253.
82 Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, p. 213.
83 Ibid. P. 113.
84 See Jones, Ernest: The problem of Hamlet and the Oedipus complex, Leipzig: Franz Deuticke 1911, p. 44.
85 See Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, p. 127.
86 See ibid. P. 133.
87 Ibid. P. 235.
88 Rank, Otto: Psychonanalytic Contributions to Myth Research - Collected Studies from the Years 1912 to 1914; Leipzig and Vienna: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag 1919, p. 81.
89 Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, p. 133.
90 Ibid. P. 181.
92 Freud, Sigmund: Three essays on the theory of sex, Project Gutenberg, Web.
93 See ibid.
94 Rank, Otto: Psychonanalytical Contributions to Myth Research - Collected Studies from the Years 1912 to 1914; Leipzig and Vienna: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag 1919, p. 81.
95 See Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, p. 167.
97 See ibid. Pp. 253, 261.
98 Ibid. P. 169.
99 See Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, pp. 233, 291.
100 See ibid. P. 291.
101 Ibid. P. 231.
102 Ibid. P. 235
103 Ibid. P. 235
104 Ibid. P. 231
105 See Kitto, H. D. F .: Form and Meaning in Drama - A Study of Six Greek Plays and of Hamlet, London: Methuen Co. 1956, p. 285.
106 Shakespeare, William: Hamlet, (Ed.) Holger Klein, Stuttgart: Reclam 2014, pp. 231, 233.
107 Ibid. P. 287.
108 See ibid. P. 169.
109 Ibid. P. 133.
110 Lüthi, Hans Jürg: The German picture of Hamlet since Goethe, Bern: Paul Haupt Verlag 1951, p. 27.
111 Ibid. P. 28.
112 See Lüthi, Hans Jürg: The German picture of Hamlet since Goethe, Bern: Paul Haupt Verlag 1951, p. 42.
113 Williams, Andrew: Reading key: William Shakespeare - Hamlet, Stuttgart: Reclam Verlag 2009, p. 78.
114 See Eliot, T. S .: "Hamlet and His Problems," in The Sacred Wood - Essays on Poetry and Criticism, London: Faber and Faber Limited 1997, p. 82.
115 See ibid. P. 81.
116 "[...] neither of these men in writing about Hamlet remembered that his first business was to study a work of art." (Eliot, T. S .: "Hamlet and His Problems," p. 81)
117 See Eliot, T. S .: "Hamlet and His Problems," in The Sacred Wood - Essays on Poetry and Criticism, London: Faber and Faber Limited 1997, p. 82.
118 "We should have to understand thigs which Shakespeare did not understand himself." (Eliot, T. S .: "Hamlet and His Problems," p. 87)
119 "Hamlet is a stratification." (Eliot, T. S .: "Hamlet and His Problems," p. 82.)
120 See T. S. Eliot, "Hamlet and His Problems," in The Sacred Wood - Essays on Poetry and Criticism, London: Faber and Faber Limited 1997, p. 84.
121 See ibid. P. 85.
122 See ibid. P. 87.
123 "So far from being Shakespeare’s masterpiece, the play is most certainly an artistic failure." (Eliot, T. S .: "Hamlet and His Problems," p. 84.)
124 See Eliot, T. S .: "Hamlet and His Problems," in The Sacred Wood - Essays on Poetry and Criticism, London: Faber and Faber Limited 1997, pp. 85f.
125 "And probably more people have thought Hamlet a work of art because they found it interesting, than have found it interesting because it is a work of art." (Eliot, T. S .: "Hamlet and His Problems," pp. 84f.)
126 Mary Queen of Scots, Queen of Scotland, claims the throne of England as Queen Elizabeth I is considered the illegitimate heir to the throne due to the invalid marriage of her father. Ultimately, her son, Jacob I, is crowned King of England and Scotland as the legitimate great-grandson of Henry VII. (Cf. Carl Schmitt, Hamlet or Hekuba - The time has entered the game, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta 1985, p. 7).
127 Schmitt, Carl: Hamlet or Hekuba - The time has entered the game, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta 1985, p.24.
128 See ibid. P. 23.
129 Ibid. P. 34.
130 See ibid. P. 20.
131 Ibid. P. 14.
132 Ibid. P. 19.
133 Ibid. P. 21.1985, p. 31f.
134 See Schmitt, Carl: Hamlet or Hekuba - The time has entered the game, Stuttgart: Velcro-Cotta
135 Ibid. P. 25.
136 Ibid. P. 52.
137 See ibid. P. 52.
138 Freud, Sigmund: “The Interpretation of Dreams” in The Interpretation of Dreams and Other Scriptures, Frankfurt: Dörfler Verlag 2013, p. 221.
139 See Schmitt, Carl: Hamlet or Hekuba - The time has entered the game, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta 1985, p. 22.
140 Schmitt, Carl: Hamlet or Hekuba - The time has entered the game, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta 1985, p. 39f.
141 Ibid. P. 22.
142 Freud, Sigmund: “The Interpretation of Dreams” in The Interpretation of Dreams and Other Scriptures, Frankfurt: Dörfler Verlag 2013, p. 221.
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