How is dark brown bread made

German breads with pictures and ingredients | list

A German type of bread is made using traditional craft techniques and consists of certain natural main ingredients. The variety is created by varying the ingredients, the most varied production methods and the use of a wide variety of oven systems. There are many different forms of bread that are baked at different temperatures and humidity levels. All in all, there is a wide variety of local types of bread, the exact number of which is not known.

When there was no network and no computers, there was no overview of the number of German breads. The widely scattered records allowed no more than estimates. The Federal Institute for Grain, Potato and Fat Research (predecessor of the Max Rubner Institute, Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food) carried out such an estimate several decades ago. This resulted in 300 types of German bread, a number that has never been really checked, but is still often quoted in the media today. Experts wanted to know more, for the “Bread World Record” in 2005, more than 1000 types of bread were documented with modern digital possibilities. It was not documented how many of them were actually traditionally handcrafted breads; namely, there is a problem with counting the types of bread.

About German breads and bread specialties

Much traditional craftsmanship has been replaced by faster manufacturing processes in the past few decades. In traditional production, bread doughs are prepared over a long period of time and in various stages and rest before baking, sometimes for a very long time. The many types of bread are varied (with special spices such as caraway seeds, high-calorie holiday bread, etc.), but cautious - if the original recipe is good, recipe variant 1002 cannot add anything spectacular.

If functional additives ensure that the bread dough can be put straight into the oven, then it is a good idea to bake infinite variations: the dough can be divided and equipped with special ingredients without disrupting bread ripening or other work processes, where the bread must be left alone. The recipe can easily be changed, because the results of these quick baking processes do not develop the fullness of taste of a real artisan bread anyway ...

That is why there is a colorful mish-mash on offer today:

  • Real old German breads
  • Breads and dough pieces that only pretend that they have been prepared according to the rules of the trade
  • many new bread specialties that change daily at some fix bakers.

The bread register of the baker's guild, of which the fast bakers are also members, no longer deals with types of bread - that would require that it delimits traditional craftsmanship, a bureaucratic task that can hardly be fulfilled. That is why the bakers' guild withdrew to the term bread specialties years ago, of which they now list over 3200 (which are entered by the bakers themselves, see German Bread Institute).

How many of them are real German breads, nobody knows ... but the artisan bakers are on the rise again everywhere. You will learn how to recognize real types of bread. The diversity of the varieties can be easily approached using the guiding principles of the official German food book, which are based on the traditional German bread types in their variety groups.

List of German breads

In the guiding principles of the German Food Book (DLMB), bread is divided into 17 large, traditional groups of varieties according to the grain used and the production process, each of which describes the essential characteristics and properties. If you know which type of bread a type of bread belongs to, you will know the main ingredients of this type of bread. Here are the 17 groups of types, each with the most popular types of bread / traditional baking methods:

1. Wheat bread or white bread

ingredients according to DLMB: at least 90 percent wheat flour
Traditional preparation: Yeast leavening agent, numerous forms of preparation from baking in a box to braided plaits influence the taste.


  • German white bread / box white bread
  • German versions of the Italian Ciabatta or the Provencal Fougasse, both with olive oil
  • German versions of flatbreads from various cultures
  • Raisin bread (mares, Klöben, Klaben)
  • White bread

2. Mixed wheat bread

ingredients according to DLMB: more than 50 and less than 90 percent wheat flour
Traditional preparation: If there is a high proportion of wheat only with yeast, the more rye flour, the more likely it is with yeast and sourdough. There are also many different types of mixed wheat bread, because doughs with a high proportion of wheat flour are generally easy to shape and score.


  • French country bread
  • Half and half
  • Hamburger fine bread (with buttermilk)
  • Kassel bread
  • Crust bread
  • Munsterland mares
  • Rose mares
  • Swiss bread
  • Protein-containing mixed breads such as lupine bread, protein bread
  • Special breads such as Thuringian potato bread, pumpkin bread, chestnut bread, buttermilk bread

3. Rye bread

ingredients according to DLMB: At least 90 percent rye flour
Traditional preparation: Rye dough can only be baked by adding acid, traditionally this acid is only added by sourdough (from water, flour, heat, time). The sourdough gives the bread a hearty, slightly sour taste and makes it much more durable than wheat bread.


  • farmers bread
  • Berlin country bread
  • Frankenlaib
  • Malt grain bread
  • Spessart crust

4. Mixed rye bread

ingredients according to DLMB: More than 50 and less than 90 percent rye flour
Traditional preparation: Here, the hearty taste of the rye sourdough is softened by adding wheat flour; yeast is usually also used when there is a high proportion of wheat. Rye breads and mixed rye breads are usually baked flat in simple shapes or evenly pierced on the surface. With this popular bread group, remnants of a long-forgotten regionality have been preserved: In the south of Germany a lot of round shapes are sold; more long loaves in the north.


  • Old German farmer's bread
  • Altmarker bread
  • Bavarian house bread
  • Double baking
  • Eifel bread
  • Frankenlaib
  • Barley bread
  • Heather bread
  • Hessenländer
  • Country bread
  • Painted bread with 10% barley malt flour
  • carrot bread
  • Paderborn farmer's bread
  • Silesian country bread

4a. Various classic and new German types of bread “fluctuate” between mixed wheat bread and mixed rye bread, ie they are baked in variants with more wheat flour or more rye flour; for example:

  • Bavarian house bread
  • beer bread
  • Gourmet bread (chopped, roasted hazelnuts, soy meal, sunflower seeds)
  • Nut breads with walnuts, hazelnuts, other nuts
  • Olive bread
  • Black Forest bread
  • Westerwald country bread

5. Whole wheat bread

ingredients according to DLMB: At least 90 percent rye and whole wheat products; for “wholegrain bread” in any ratio, for “wholegrain wheat rye bread” more than 50 percent whole wheat products, for “wholegrain rye wheat bread” more than 50 percent of it wholegrain rye products. At least two thirds of the acid added must come from sourdough.
Traditional preparation: Whole-grain bread is baked from whole-grain grain, water, yeast and / or sourdough and salt. Sometimes spices are added, and many variants are known in terms of shape, taste and structure.


  • Commission bread
  • Black bread (not always real wholemeal bread, dark breads made from grain without seedling are also called that)
  • Whole grain pumpkin seed bread

6. Whole wheat bread

ingredients According to DLMB: At least 90 percent whole wheat products
Traditional preparation: see whole wheat bread


  • Whole grain chia wheat bread
  • Wheat germ bread
  • Whole Wheat Nut Bread
  • Whole wheat sourdough bread

7. Whole grain rye bread

ingredients According to DLMB: At least 90 percent wholegrain rye products, at least two thirds of the added acid must come from sourdough
Traditional preparation: see whole wheat bread


  • masterpiece
  • Rhenish black bread
  • Rye bread

8. Whole-grain oat bread or whole-grain bread with other types of grain

ingredients According to DLMB: At least 20 percent whole grain products of the "other grain type", a total of at least 90 percent whole grain products, at least two thirds of the added acid from sourdough.
Traditional preparation: like whole wheat bread


  • Wholegrain oat bread
  • Whole grain barley bread

9. Whole bread

ingredients according to DLMB: at least 90 percent rye and wheat baked meal; in any ratio for “Wheat Rye Bread”, for “Wheat Rye Bread” more than 50 percent wheat baked meal, for “Rye Wheat Bread” more than 50 percent of it is rye baked meal.
Traditional preparation: Baked meal is coarsely chopped grain from which the seedlings have been removed before grinding. It is important here that fresh grist is processed and the dough is worked on by the baker for so long and vigorously that all the shell particles can swell out well. Whole breads are traditionally baked as steam chamber bread, that is, put under steam in tightly sealable ovens and baked for hours at a baking temperature of no more than 100 degrees. This will prevent them from developing a crust and will retain most of the heat-sensitive vitamins.


  • Loaf of bread with a rough, medium-brown crust and sourdough content
  • Whole bread with spelled

10. Wheat meal bread

ingredients according to DLMB: At least 90 percent wheat bread
Traditional preparation: see breadcrumbs


  • Graham bread (box bread made from fine whole grain whole wheat meal without added salt, yeast, sourdough, a lot of protein + little acid)
  • Wheat bread with sourdough

11. Rye bread

ingredients According to DLMB: At least 90 percent rye breadcrumbs
Traditional preparation: The swelling of the dough must be promoted even more than with other breadcrumbs. The coarser the meal, the longer the dough has to swell so that the bread develops a compact crumb and the typical strong, sour taste.


  • Brandenburg breadcrumbs
  • Hamburger black bread
  • Oldenburg bread

12. Pumpernickel

Ingredients + preparation according to DLMB: at least 90 percent rye baked meal and / or whole grain rye meal, minimum baking time 16 hours; In the case of production from whole grain meal, at least two thirds of the acid added must come from sourdough.
Traditional preparation: Steam chamber bread, see wheat meal bread


  • Westphalian Pumpernickel (geographically protected)

13. Toasted bread

ingredients according to DLMB:

  • Toast: At least 90 percent wheat flour
  • Whole wheat toast: at least 90 percent whole wheat products, any added acid must come from sourdough to at least two thirds
  • Mixed wheat toast: more than 50 percent and less than 90 percent wheat flour
  • Mixed rye toast: More than 50 percent and less than 90 percent rye flour
  • Whole grain toast: at least 90 percent whole wheat / rye products in any proportion, at least two thirds of the added acid must come from sourdough

Traditional preparation: Toast is baked in a loaf pan with good insulation to keep the crust soft.


  • Butter toast
  • Spelled toast
  • Grain toast (multi-grain toast)
  • Raisin Toast
  • Hot dog toast

14. Crispbread

Ingredients + preparation according to DLMB:

  • Crispbread: May contain whole grain meal, whole grain flour, flour made from rye, wheat, other types of grain + grain mixtures as well as other foods. The dry flat bread must be loosened by yeast, sourdough fermentation, air impact in a physical way or other processes, not by hot extrusion (mechanical pressing process). The finished crispbread must not contain more than 10 percent moisture.
  • Other dry flat breads: Must meet the requirements for crispbread, but may be produced by hot extrusion.


Numerous in both areas because additives can be easily added and hold well because of the low moisture, for example sesame, Mjölk, rye, extra thin crisp, whole grain, chia and spelled, other flavor additives such as tomato and mozzarella, cheese and pumpkin seed, tomato and basil.

15.Multi-grain bread, three-grain bread, four-grain bread, etc.

ingredients According to DLMB: At least one type of bread cereal, at least one other type of cereal, a total of three or more different types of cereal, each of which contains at least 5 percent. No. 15 applies accordingly to multi-grain toast and multi-grain crispbread.
Traditional preparation: Depending on the predominant type of grain, the varieties result from the variety group designation

16. Oat bread, rice bread, corn bread, millet bread, buckwheat bread, barley bread

ingredients According to DLMB: At least 20 percent of the named other grain types ("other" means oats and co. in contrast to the bread grains wheat, spelled and rye)
Traditional preparation depending on the variety: Oat bread is traditionally baked mixed with wheat, the originally North German buckwheat bread was baked from rye, wheat, sourdough, but is seldom sold today (more buckwheat than gluten-free food is made from corn starch, guar gum, gluten-free corn ferment, fat, sugar, yeast and a little buckwheat flour in circulation).

17. Spelled bread, triticale bread

ingredients According to DLMB: At least 90 percent spelled / triticale products
Traditional preparation:The original traditional preparation of spelled bread was forgotten for so long that today every baker bakes his spelled bread. Every now and then there is the classic spelled bread, but often also mixed spelled bread or mixed wheat bread with spelled. There is no traditional preparation for triticale bread because triticale is a fairly new cross between wheat and rye. Because the baking properties have proven to be rather unfavorable, pure triticale is rarely baked, but wheat or rye mixed bread with triticale.

The guiding principles define some additional information that may supplement (not replace) the (traffic) names just described and define certain properties:

  • Stone oven bread: Pushed or pushed (= touching in the oven) only baked on baked goods carriers made of natural and / or artificial stone, firebrick or other suitable non-metallic materials
  • Wood-fired bread: Pushed or pushed in directly fired ovens, baking chamber made of stone / stone-like material, natural wood as heating material
  • Barley bread, barley bread: Pieces of dough flamed in an open fire to the characteristic sprinkling (= tarred)
  • Ham sandwich: Wholemeal rye bread / rye meal bread (without ham), in a semicircular shape pushed open, pushed / baked in the box, particularly hearty, aromatic taste

Further ingredients

According to the principles of the German Food Book, German bread contains less than 10% fat and / or types of sugar to 90% cereals and / or cereal products, this applies to all types of German bread.

In addition to the pure cereal breads, many special breads with other ingredients were also mentioned above. For the "value-determining ingredients"

  • butter
  • milk
  • Milk protein
  • Buttermilk
  • yogurt
  • kefir
  • whey
  • Quark
  • Wheat germ
  • linseed
  • sesame
  • Sunflower seeds
  • nuts
  • Poppy
  • other oil seeds
  • Raisins / sultanas
  • Currants
  • Edible bran
  • Fiber concentrates
  • Shot shares

the guiding principles prescribe minimum quantities if the type of bread is named after them. If other flavoring ingredients give a bread type / bread specialty its special character, there must be enough of it in the bread that the special properties are "sensory clear" or nutritionally value-determining.

The search for small, artisanal bakeries is worthwhile in several ways: Real wheat bread may be stale (keyword: bread casserole, dumplings), real rye bread a little firmer, but neither will be bad if stored correctly. And you might discover a really regional type of bread; the original well-known regional specialties are no longer because they have long been sold all over Germany.