# What is the slope factor on stairs

## Straight - one-way stairs

Dear Customers! We have prepared a unique material for you. How to calculate the ladder yourself and choose the opening, without using computer programs to calculate the ladders according to their size.

This guide will help you draw a draft of the L-shaped staircase to the second floor yourself in just a few minutes. Ladders for the home, bathroom or garage with a rotation of 90 degrees. You can save money by doing a preliminary measurement yourself and preparing an opening for the stairs.

• In the schematic drawing you can select and accurately estimate the dimensions of the stairs and fit the stairs into the dimensions of your opening.

So we decided we needed an L shaped staircase for the house. For further measurements and calculations we need:

A4 sheet of paper, preferably in a normal school cell (5x5 mm);
Pencil or pen;
Roulette from 3 m.
computer

Step 1. Measure the space for the stairs.

Take an ordinary piece of paper in the cell and draw a convenient coordinate system on it. In our example it looks like this:

All calculations are done in millimeters (mm). It is very convenient to use the scale: 2 cells = 225 mm. Why you can find the answer further.

To better illustrate the example, we have limited the coordinate plane to 4200 x 3000 mm. (In your case, these values ​​differ) according to the parameters of our premises.

In your case, you can view all restrictions. For example: windows, doors, protrusions of batteries, gas boiler, stove, fireplace and other obstacles that may appear in the desired installation location of the stairs. Simply use the tape measure to go through all your premise of the intended installation of the stairs and fix all the dimensions and distances on paper.

Measure the height of your room from the ground floor (we mean you are counting the stairs that go from the first to the second floor) to the clean floor on the second floor. In this way we found the height of the room taking into account the thickness of the overlap between the floors. We will take the height from floor to floor, what is most country houses, it is 3 meters. Now we know that we need a 3 meter high ladder (3000 mm).

Let's put all the obtained dimensions on our coordinate plane and mark the dimensions of the ceiling opening for the stairs in the plane:

These measurements are enough for us to choose the best stair solution for you without having to call the transducer, and additional costs accordingly. Now you can enter our office (showroom on Moskovsky Prospect d.91, office 712), consult, see our products, go through the finished samples and buy a staircase.

Step 2. Select the step to raise the stairs and calculate the number of steps

We have already decided that our stairs will be rotated 90 degrees to the right.

Consider the most common solution - the G-shaped staircase with the front steps, i.e. H. without pad

We have already decided that we need a ladder 3 meters high.

Now we have to answer the following questions:

• Which lift level should be selected?
• How many steps does the ladder take?
• Are we going to hit the ceiling and climb such stairs?
• How much space do the stairs need?

See everything in order.

Raise step.In general, modular ladders have a remarkable ability to flexibly adjust the step of lifting a step and profile, which determines the comfort of climbing or descending the stairs. We give general tips for choosing the steps to increase the steps:

• 150-180 mm - the most convenient, but also the most expensive option (ideal for children and the elderly);
• 180-200 mm - the optimal solution and comfortable stairs for an adult.
• 200-220 mm - Option of the most suitable in terms of price / comfort of the ascent descent.
• More 220 mm - Economic options or compromises when the constraints of space or opening are so great that it is not possible to install a full-fledged staircase with a smaller step of raising the steps.

For our planned staircase, we are taking the step of increasing the step to 200 mm, which is quite convenient and economical. This is how we are understood in steps of 200 mm up to a height of 3000 mm. It takes 15 ascents (just divide 3000 by 200).

If we put 15 steps on 15 lifts, it is obvious that the top step is flush with the floor of the second floor, which in most cases is meaningless.

Therefore, the number of steps should be 1 less than the number of climbs. We get that our staircase consists of 14 steps and 15 elevators:

Standard sizes of our levels in sales: pine, beech, oak 1000x300x40mm;

Since the steps are installed with a small "overhang" (overlap) one above the other (the length of the projection of the upper step to the previous step is 75 mm), each step (except the upper one) occupies 300 - 75 = 225 mm horizontally, which is the case is standard size stand out

To determine how much space will take up 14 steps in the room, you just need to multiply the length of the profile (this is exactly the horizontal distance each step takes). by 225 mm and add 75 mm to the result (since the top step in the top view does not add up to 225 mm, but to 300). We get the following calculation The length of the stairs (by floor):

L = 13 * 225 + 300 = 3 225 mm.

NoteModular stairs are good in that a parameter such as a step profile can be set from 165 to 320 mm (this affects the comfort of the ascent). (standard 225mm). The length of our planned staircase "on the floor" can be between 2,385 and 3225 mm, which means that such a staircase can be accessed even in the smallest room with a small opening.

Now we are going to answer such an important question, whether we can climb such a ladder and not bang our head on the opening. After you have indicated the steps and dimensions of the opening in our drawing, mark the height of each step. We know that the total height of the stairs should be 3000mm, and the floor deck should be 200mm, then the floor-to-ceiling height will be 3000-200 = 2800mm. Imagine the tallest person who must safely climb the stairs is 1950 mm (1 m and 90 cm). In the figure we see that the height of the last step (the fourth step) before a person enters the opening space is 800 mm.

If a tall person with a height of 1900 mm climbs to the fourth step (800 mm high), the following height remains up to the ceiling: 2800 - (1900 + 800) = 100 mm. So we have a stock up to a possible head impact on the ceiling of 100 mm. Thus, our staircase fits this opening perfectly and is absolutely safe.

Step 3. Calculate the number of standard metal railings for a modular stepping ladder

As a rule, stylish metal balusters in various sizes from 800 mm to 1030 mm in length are used in modular ladders. Balusters are mounted through the path, i.e. the baluster goes through the upper step and is attached to the previous one. This mounting method improves rail routing and adds extra lateral support to the steps.

Thus, 14 balusters are required for the middle flight director. At the request and conditions for access to the stairs, you can install the baluster and the first step. The number of balusters is then 15 pieces:

Step 4. Calculate the length of the stair rail line

Everything is simple here, we take (triangle) the Pythagorean hypotenuse theorem and add 100-200 mm to the result. 100-200mm is a small length required to extend the rail line a little for easier operation. If you don't, your railroad line will start right at the lower baluster and end right at the top, which is aesthetically unattractive:

Step 5. Calculation of the banisters

Banisters - This is the upper floor fencing that prevents people from climbing stairs.
The balustrade is made up of the same balustrades and handrails that are used in the stairs.

Balusters balustrades. It is necessary to consider the frequency with which we will install balusters:

• Every six to seven inches - this common installation of balusters is ideal if you have young children in your home. Such a balustrade is reliable (a lot of attachment points) and completely safe, but also more expensive.
• Every 20-25 cm - the easiest economical option, but less safe when there are small children in the house.

Railing line. To estimate how many handrails you need for a balustrade, simply measure all the distances at the planned installation location of the balustrade: A + B + C + D:

After you've compiled the top view of the staircase project, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with the photos of the stairs in the stairwells.

Straight one-way ladder is the most common and easiest exercise to build.

The main disadvantage of this type of stairs is that with a convenient ratio of the width and height of the stairs, the length of the stairs to climb to the second floor or attic is between 3 m and 6.5 m, depending on the angle of inclination and the height of the room.

It is easy to review this type of ladder that is comfortable and safe. To do this, you need to know the length that was taken under the stairs during the development of the project, as well as the floor level of the second floor

Don't forget that you need to provide a platform on the first and second floors to enter and exit the stairs. Platforms for entry and exit to the stairs must be at least 80 cm long and correspond to the width of the stairs. All this is taken into account, and as a result we have a comfortable staircase with an optimal angle of inclination of the stairs and the ratio of the width and height of the steps.

• we determine the approximate height of the steps as a function of the gradient in order to round the obtained value to a whole number of steps.
• get the width of the steps.

However, in front of the stairs from the top and bottom, you need to provide platforms for the entrance and exit of the stairs with a minimum length of 80 cm and a width equal to the width of the stairs.

Accordingly, the area to be laid for the stairs when planning a house increases to 4.5 m².

Before starting work, you need to calculate the main parameters of our future design:

• We will climb the height of the ground.
• Dimensions of the steps (width and height).
• Tilt angle

The optimal parameters that must be met by single-core ladders are listed in the table:

 Inclination angle, lifting part, degrees Rate of increase The height of a step, cm Minimum width of a step, cm

Since the overall dimensions of the structure largely depend on the size of the room in which they will be installed, the calculation of a single-conductor ladder includes, first of all, determining the number of steps:

• Determine the length of the stairs and the total difference in height between the markings on the plan.
• The lifting height is determined taking into account the floor ceilings, as they can be of considerable thickness.
• We calculate the angle at which the ladder is located and determine the corresponding gradient coefficient.
• Depending on the gradient, we determine the optimal step height.
• By dividing the ascent height by a step height, we get the number of steps required for comfortable movement (rounded to the full value).

### Key dimensions

Finally, we need to determine the width of each step. To do this, divide the length of the march embedded in the project by the number of individual elements. If the number is not less than in the table, then everything is fine.

### What makes this design stand out?

• The base of the span are inclined bars - kosouri.
• The lower part of the beams rests on the floor of the first floor and the upper part is flush with the flooring of the second floor.
• For most constructions, it is optimal to use three bearing elements: two kosoura are on the sides, and one - in the middle of the steps.
• The steps themselves are mounted in a horizontal position to the notches on the support beam. Vertical parts overlap with special strips - the so-called risers.

A normal staircase usually has ten to fifteen steps. In the event that they are not enough to get to the next floor, plan a march and connect two steps with a platform. In private houses, the walls in the corner are often adjoined by a double-winged staircase with a turn.

Not everyone is fully aware of the real importance of creating ladder objects, which are characterized by a certain complexity of execution. A person who has no special knowledge in this area would prefer to build an easy flight to the second floor. However, the height of the ceiling significantly affects the steep rise of the device. There are design options for a flatter product. In this case, the staircase structure begins with a walk from the door, and its end is on the ceiling of the other end of the room, as shown in the photo. However, such a project is not very practical to use. In addition, it is not recommended to build experienced professionals. Therefore, the design of marches is very relevant.

If there is enough space, it will be possible to build a front swinging staircase with several marches on foot. The material for building such a structure can be marble or precious wood. This design will surely become the main element of the interior, as can be seen in the photo.

### Views

Biodiversity dvuhmarchevyh stairs quite far. Straight march designs have several shapes:

• Parallels that lie in the same geometric plane;
• L-shaped such a structure is located on the adjacent walls;
• Swing In this design, the first span is in the free zone and then diverges in different directions.

The straight construction is characterized by the fact that their marches are separated by a playground. In this case, the rotation of the structure can be 90 or 180 degrees. In the event that troop units are located on the product instead of a platform, such a construction is referred to as an oscillating center ladder.

### Design and calculations

Dvuhmarshevye designs have two marches. Also, every march should have the same number of steps.

All stair constructions are roughly equally complex in their design. Recently, many country house owners prefer to build such buildings with their own hands. To do this, you can use various computer programs to carry out the calculations of the main parameters and drawings of the ladder structure. It is enough to know the dimensions of the room in which the lifting device is to be placed.

If there is no stairwell fence in a structure with more than three steps, its safety cannot be guaranteed. The product, which has a steep march, is also dangerous.

When constructing the stairs with your own hands, you can also use metal modules, which are also ready to assemble. They are assembled and sealed according to the principle of the children's designer. If you follow the enclosed instructions, you can collect a two-flight ladder yourself with little effort.

### material

If we talk about the material for creating a two-march structure with a twist, we need to consider the following:

• Metal ladder constructions in the future must definitely be renewed;
• Wood products can be left in their original form or lined with special materials.

### Dimensions

According to building regulations, some details of the ladder design must have certain parameters:

• staircase design in a private house should have a width of more than 90 centimeters. Then it will be very pleasant for him to understand him;
• the size of the gap should be 10 centimeters.
• the distance between the stairs should be at least 2 meters. In this case, even a tall person would comfortably use such a ladder.

### parameter

With a room height of 3 meters, each step of a double-run ladder is 1.5 meters long. At the same time, the height of each lower foot will be 0.15 meters after 10 steps.

If the length of the room is also 3 meters, dividing this value by the number of steps, we get a step width of 0.3 meters.

The parameters of the staircase can depend on its main purpose, as well as its role in the design of the interior decoration of the room.

Many people wonder how to charge the turntable to the second floor. In this day and age it is possible and not a specialist in design, all you need is access to the internet. There are many different services for calculating stairs on the World Wide Web.

The instructions for these services warn users of the need to know some data:

• The length and height of the opening;
• The width of the future staircase of a private house;
• The number of steps required;
• Number of turning and turning steps;
• Thickness of the latter;
• Skirting edges.

Such services have a great advantage: in addition to being able to design and make an ordinary drawing, you can make a color sketch and see how this element fits the color range of the premises.

Staircase with a turntable in the corner of the room

Is important With online services, you also have the option of equipping them with special handrails for children, the elderly or people with disabilities.

Any experienced designer will say that if there are stairs with spiral staircases in the house, the space is space-saving without losing functionality and comfort.

When calculating the turntable, pay attention to the following important points:

· It is necessary to choose the optimal number of steps. - With a width of 80 cm there should be three steps. If you take a larger number, you or the master will have to take closer steps. Such a step leads to the fact that the residents of the house move uncomfortably between the floors.

· If you only want to create an opening above the structure, you need to consider the height in the rotation area before overlapping. The minimum height must be at least two meters, otherwise there is a higher risk of injury to the head.

· An important step is choosing the width of the stairs. The greater the width, the greater the number of steps. The most convenient are constructions in which the drawings of the pivoting ladders have a ratio: the sum of two step heights and one of their depths is sixty centimeters (plus or minus five). An ideal slope is 30 to 40 degrees with a depth of 300 mm and a height of 250 mm.

### BUILDING MATERIAL

We believe that everyone agrees that wood is an ideal material for interior decoration. Metal and plastic do not have as much entourage when they are implemented in the design of private vacation homes.

By using wood, you can create a variety of shapes that will blend in very well with the interior of the house with its wood coatings and furniture. In addition, any pattern or carving can be applied to the tree. Another advantage is the price.

Rotatable wooden staircase at the end of the hallway

Advice In order for your wooden feet to last as long as possible, use only special tints and abrasion-resistant varnishes.

• Experienced craftsmen and designers, when designing, recommend the option of building storage rooms under the stairs. When developing a design, you can embody the most creative and daring ideas in it.
• You need to decide on the type of wood for your design. Spruce boards have an affordable price and price. They have a light, uniform structure and durability. Spruce boards are perfect.

Beech boards are gray or reddish in color and have a mild structure. Due to their strength, spruce trees are clearly inferior.

### Beech board

Light yellow oak is resistant to external influences and is also suitable for construction. Now there is a wide choice of wood for creating steps and frames, so that each master can choose materials at his own discretion and financial means.

• If you really want to learn how to build swiveling stairs with your own hands, then you will need special training materials and video courses. The advantage is that you can easily find them on our portal.
• Big mistake to install wooden stairs on the stage to build a house. Such a construction is considered temporary, but then it is exploited permanently;
• Be careful, because unscrupulous craftsmen can wrap the metal frame with wood and keep the money saved.
• There is no need to develop a complex stairwell design as it can complicate the driving and moving of furniture. You will not surprise anyone with an unusual design, but you will create a lot of problems for yourself.

Design variants

### Direct stairs in the frame house

The straight ladder in the middle (Fig. 1) is the most common and easiest to make on your own. The width and height of the steps, the angle of inclination of such a staircase are closely related. If you change one of these parameters, the other two are automatically changed. The smaller the angle of inclination of such a staircase, the wider the steps and their height is lower, and vice versa, the greater the angle of inclination of the staircase, the smaller the width of the step and the height of the step increases.

The main disadvantage of this type of ladder is that with a convenient ratio of the width and height of the steps, the length of the stairs to climb to the second floor or attic is between 3 m and 6.5 m, depending on the angle of inclination, room height and thickness of the floor slabs. In view of the places that must be provided for the entrance and exit to the stairs (Fig. 1a. And Fig. 1b.), The total length of the stairs increases to 4.5 to 8 m.

It is easy to review this type of ladder that is comfortable and safe. To do this, you need to know the length taken under the stairs during the development of the project and the floor level of the second floor (Fig. 2).

In our case, the length that was taken under the stairs is 4.32 m and the floor on the second floor is 2.88 m. If the length of the stairs is 4.32 by the height of the second floor of the floor to 2.88 m, results in an inclination factor of 1.5. This corresponds to an incline of 33.5 degrees. The width of the steps is 27 cm and the height 18 cm.

Don't forget that you need to provide a platform on the first and second floors for entering and exiting the stairs. Platforms for entry and exit to the stairs must be at least 80 cm long and correspond to the width of the stairs. In the project under review (Fig. 2) All this is taken into account, and as a result we have a comfortable staircase with an optimal angle of inclination of the stairs and the ratio of the width and height of the steps.

• determine the length of the stairs and the total height of the ascent, taking into account the floors and floor coverings.
• calculate the slope of the stairs or the slope factor
• use Table 1 to determine the approximate height of the steps based on the slope, and round the result to an integer number of steps.
• By dividing the height of ascent by the number of steps, we get the height of each step.
• So the length of the stairs is divided by the number of steps
• get the width of the steps.

For example:

• The length of our stairs is 3.7 m, the height that we need to climb, taking into account the floors and floor coverings, is 2.82 m.
• The angle of the stairs is 37 degrees and the slope coefficient is 1.3. Both values ​​are closer to the parameters of 36.5 degrees, the height of the steps is 19 cm.
• We divide 2.82 m by 19 cm, we get 14.84 degrees, we round this value into a whole number, that is, in 15 steps.
• Divide the height of 2.82 m. With the exact number of steps (in our staircase 15) we get the height of each step in 188 mm.
• The length of the stairs 3.7m. Dividing by the number of steps (15) we get the width of each step in 247 mm.

A little later I will try to tell you about each of the possible types of stair construction. From the very simple option with mounting steps on the walls, to more complex stairs on the rope set, kosourah and with the risers in the stairs.

The area to be reserved for such a staircase in the house depends on its angle of inclination and the width of the staircase. For example, with a room height of 2.7 m. The total thickness of the overlap between the floors is 0.25 m. The maximum angle of inclination of the stairs is 45 degrees and the width is 1 m, the length of the flight of stairs itself is about 3 m and the The area taken up by the flight of stairs will be around 3 m2.

Today absolutely all structures, buildings, and even stairwells have specific requirements, regardless of where they are installed, at the entrance to a residential building, or whether it is a long work staircase. It should be noted that standards such as SNiP, GOST and SanPiN should be observed not for convenience, but for the safety of life. There are certain organizations that set standards and monitor compliance when creating objects.

### Which materials are used for the ladder length 2.5 m?

What should be a long and grand staircase that the best engineers have not even dreamed of.

For example, the length varies from 1200 - 2700, 2800 mm:

First of all, you should pay attention to the strength of the structure and the materials from which it is made. Ideal ladders are those that use concrete products, gutters and pipelines in their manufacture. In order for the staircase systems to last as long as possible, the materials must be top quality and with excellent properties. If you plan to plan with a span of 4x4 m (444 mm) and it will be made of wood, not only do you need to choose a rod, but it must be made of solid wood, which has high technical operating characteristics.

Ladders are an important and responsible feature in every household. They have to offer comfort, reliability and safety for every resident. It is desirable that the stairs take up little space in their area. And in order for it to meet all standards, you need to calculate and correctly design the ladder.

### How to calculate the stairs: the basics

The most common material for the manufacture of staircases - a tree. It is considered to be the warmest and most pliable material that you should work with very carefully. The most common types of wood are beech, oak, ash, birch, larch and pine.

To do calculations for any type of ladder, you must first define three quantities. First you need to determine the height of the clean floor, and after that you need to measure the height of the structure along the wall. Second, it is necessary to measure its length, starting from the wall to the expected completion of the span. And thirdly, you need to find out the length of the stairs using the Pythagorean Theorem. In this case, the lengths of the legs are the found dimensions of the height and length of the ladder, and you need to find the hypotenuse of the resulting right triangle, i.e. H. March length

In order to be able to walk comfortably on the stairs, the depth of the steps should be about 30 cm and the height about 16 cm.

Knowing the dimensions of the steps, it is necessary to divide the length of the stairs into these dimensions, and their number will turn out.

The resulting numbers are needed to correctly calculate the stairs for the house. Let's take an example: if the height between the first and second floors is 3 meters, and one step is 30 cm x 15-18 cm, you will get 17-20 risers. At the same time, the last step is the floor on the second floor. Next, you need to increase the height of the ladder structure by an integer in that area. Better if it is straight, and you will get the exact height of the step, consisting of the thickness of the tread and the width of the stirrup. Assuming you need to complete 18 steps, the height of the step is 300: 18 = 16.7 cm. Such a structure should be divided into two steps of stairs and be sure to make a turn.